Thursday, December 26, 2019
SPEECH #3 Ã¢â¬â PERSUASIVE SPEECH Name: DANIEL C. DILIGENT Title: Lowering the Legal Drinking Age Specific Purpose: To argue in favor of lowering the minimum legal drinking age in the United States. Thesis Statement: I will discuss 1) the current legal drinking age, 2) the effect that this drinking age has upon American social norms, and 3) the potential benefits of a lower drinking age. I. INTRODUCTION A. Hook: Alcohol is ever-present in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s American society. Television viewers are constantly bombarded with advertisements promoting its consumption. Social events rarely take place without their attendees drinking some alcoholic beverage or another. However, young people in America are told by society that they are not allowed toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Alcohol would no longer be perceived as a forbidden fruit III. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the current law setting the minimum drinking age at 21 has failed in its effort to keep AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s young people safe from the dangerous aspects of alcohol consumption. In addition to being ineffective, the law impinges upon the rights of individuals to partake in activities which are otherwise pervasive in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s American social culture. Though those who are 18 years old are considered adults in nearly all facets of the law, including voting rights and the ability to join the military, they are still treated as minors when it comes to drinking. If an 18-year-old is old enough to make those important decisions, then he or she is certainly old enough to decide whether or not he or she is ready to consume alcohol. Because of the current laws, young men and women are compelled to furtively experiment with alcohol. Rather than beginning their drinking experiences under the supervision of responsible adults, the young people do so in secret, bec ause the laws and the culture they have created refuse to allow them to explore their natural curiosities. By lowering the drinking age, the U.S. can begin to raise more responsible drinkers, who will not be as prone to alcohol abuse or addiction as todayÃ¢â¬â¢s Americans are. Thank you. IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Tway, Kelley. Ã¢â¬Å"The Benefits of the Drinking Age.Ã¢â¬ Mothers Against Drunk Driving. 2004. 2. Seaman, Barrett. Binge. Hoboken: John Wiley Show MoreRelatedVerbal Mediums And Music And Song Provide A Holistic Reflection Of The Culture Of A Given Community963 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesreflection of the culture of a given community. Songs are products and practices that are able to shed light on the philosophical, political, socio-cultural norms, and perspectives of a particular society.1 Thus, these products shape the worldview of a cultural group. Within patriarchal subcultures, such as fraternities, song lyrics reflect socially constructed dominant masculinities that members are encouraged to adopt and engage in. From Rugby Road to Vinegar Hill, a drinking song made prominentRead MoreBinge Drinking in the College Culture: Identifying Causes, Consequences, Potential Treatment Approaches1775 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBinge drinking has been synonymous with typi cal young adult college culture for decades. Fillmore and Jude (2011) reported that binge drinking is often defined as someone drinking four to five drinks during one episode of drinking, or consuming enough alcohol for a person to have a blood alcohol concentration of .08% or higher. 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Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Exploring NASA: A Comparison of the Challenger and Columbia Explosions Jennifer Waldroup HIS 247 November 17,2014 It holds true that government organizations gradually decline; the enthusiasm is replaced with bureaucracy, employees are resistant to change and overall performance is decreased. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is no exception to this. NASA is an example of bureaucracy having a detrimental effect on an organization. The lines of communication became skewed and were often broken while the organization was locked in an internal battle over who exactly was in charge. While there were heads of each department and heads of each branch, critical information often slipped through the cracks. It was this breakdown in communication and the failure to address known issues that was the direct cause for both the Challenger and Columbia explosions. The explosions, though separated by seventeen years, were incredibly similar. Concerns had been brought to the table and similarly dismissed as Ã¢â¬Å"acceptable risk.Ã¢â¬ This acceptable risk proved fatal for t he crews of both space shuttles. Bureaucracy and financial expediency led to reduced federal funding, general distrust from the public, and growing disinterest. The organization that sent men to the moon is vastly different than the organization in charge today. NASAÃ¢â¬â¢s beginnings were less clouded in red tape and bureaucratic policies. Ideas wereShow MoreRelatedProject Managment Case Studies214937 Words Ã |Ã 860 Pages377 10 CONTROLLING PROJECTS 381 The Two-Boss Problem 383 The Bathtub Period 385 Ford Motor Co.: Electrical/Electronic Systems Engineering 388 viii 11 PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT 401 CONTENTS The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster 403 The Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster 453 Packer Telecom 460 Luxor Technologies 462 Altex Corporation 466 Acme Corporation 470 12 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT 473 Facilities Scheduling at Mayer Manufacturing 475 Scheduling the Safety Lab 478 Telestar InternationalRead MoreStrategic Marketing Management337596 Words Ã |Ã 1351 Pagesand methods An illustration of segmental analysis An alternative approach to segmental analysis Customer profitability analysis Marketing experimentation The nature of productivity The use of ratios Analysing ratios and trends Ratios and interfirm comparison vi CONTENTS 3.13 3.14 A strategic approach Summary 112 116 117 119 119 120 128 136 139 149 153 159 165 167 169 169 170 174 182 188 192 202 214 215 221 223 223 230 236 241 246 248 250 251 255 261 4 Market and environmental analysisRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pages........................................................................... 251 False Dilemma Fallacy....................................................................................................................... 253 Fallacy of Faulty Comparison .......................................................................................................... 256 Fallacious Appeal to Authority .....................................................................................................Read MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pagesthan half are new to this edition) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Photos/captions (more than half are new to this edition) New feature: glOBalization!, which features organizational behavior in an international context. Improved integration of global implications: With the explosion of international research, global OB research is now woven into each chapter, rather than in a stand-alone section at the end of the chapter. Revision to Summary and Implications for Managers section, with more focus on practical ways to apply theRead MoreManagement Course: MbaÃ¢Ëâ10 General Management215330 Words Ã |Ã 862 Pagesimprovement involving entirely better ways of working. It recognizes that what one measures effectively, one is most like ly to lead and manage effectively. IntelÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis on new work flow forms of development and operation triggered fundamental explosions in the way information technology is successfully created and produced. ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis on management processes that solve small problems quicklyÃ¢â¬âfully as much as they solve large onesÃ¢â¬âhas provided it with an enormous competitive advantage in
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Health Education in Schools. Answer: Heath education at early stage of life is important as it helps to develop the children by making them immune and physically strong, mentally alert, emotionally strong and socially aware to learn every aspect of health. Jason et al. (2002) described the importance of health promotional campaigns in schools to change behavior and cease substance abuse. Authors Dreyhaupt et al. (2012) also demonstrated that physical education or promotion of mental health is important for the kids as well as younger population, in developed and developing countries. Obesity and imbalanced dietary habit are the primary concern of the healthcare society nowadays as maximum of the younger generation throughout the globe is suffering from disorders like obesity and blood pressure. Hence Dreyhaupt et al. (2012) investigated the helath promotional plan "Komm mit in das gesunde Boot - Grundschule" of Germany, which is denoted as the biggest health promotional program in Germany. The focus of the study was to investigate the beneficial effects of this campaign on schoolchildren. The researchers found that the program was able to meet its aim without harming the curriculum of those children as it involved schoolteachers by proving them easy guidelines and lessons. This program included 427 primary school kids and 890 teachers in Germany in the academic years 2009/10 and 2010/11, thereby able to receive huge success. This study also indicated to the point that parents having low socio-economic access are not being able to teach their children safety and h ealthy behavior. Therefore, the early education in schools regarding health and hygiene helps to incorporate those values within their behavior and character, making them a better human in later stage of life (Barry et al. 2013). References Barry, M.M., Clarke, A.M., Jenkins, R. and Patel, V., 2013. A systematic review of the effectiveness of mental health promotion interventions for young people in low and middle income countries.BMC public health,13(1), p.835. Dreyhaupt, J., Koch, B., Wirt, T., Schreiber, A., Brandstetter, S., Kesztys, D., Wartha, O., Kobel, S., Kettner, S., Prokopchuk, D. and Hundsdrfer, V., 2012. Evaluation of a health promotion program in children: Study protocol and design of the cluster-randomized Baden-Wuerttemberg primary school study [DRKS-ID: DRKS00000494].BMC Public Health,12(1), p.157. Jason, L.A., Curie, C.J., Townsend, S.M., Pokorny, S.B., Katz, R.B. and Sherk, J.L., 2002. Health promotion interventions.Child family behavior therapy,24(1-2), pp.67-82.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Critically evaluate this statement, drawing on the key theories and research that describe the relationship between language and thought. Language has traditionally been characterized by Philosophers as a cognitive tool used to freely externalize ones thoughts (Green, 2010 as cited in Kaye, 2010). The relationship between language, thought, culture and reality has occupied the minds of many for centuries. Early theorists argued that language and thought were two separate systems which Ã¢â¬Å"enter into an array of interconnected cognitive structuresÃ¢â¬ (Chomsky, 1983). Extreme nativists and constructivists are key proponents of innateness and argued that knowledge and thought hold a significant innate property which exists prior to the development of language acquisition and is dependent on thought for its development. (Fodor, 1975 cited in Green, 2010) In recent years, contrasting with this position, researchers have provided empirical evidence to support a causal relationship between both language and thought which indicates how we speak does shape how we think but also how we think can influence how we speak. We will write a custom essay sample on The Way We Speak Determines How We Think or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Boroditsky, 2010) The emergence of this new evidence elaborates on earlier ideas associated with the Whorfian hypothesis (Whorf, 1956 cited in Green, 2010) and focuses on an alternative approach, linguistic determinism. This essay will explore the different theoretical approaches and provide evidence which demonstrates how no one theory has provided conclusive empirical evidence that supports how we speak determines how we think. Preliminary studies on language and thought have resulted in contributory and conflicting information which looks at the definitions and functions of language and thought, the interactions between both and the origins. Language and thought have been considered to be some of the key components which define human nature and what it means to be human. Aitchison (2007) highlighted some of the key features which define our uniqueness as humans but also certain characteristics we share with our animal relatives. Semanticity is one feature which separates us from other species. Humans use words to communicate and to represent objects and actions. In contrast animals use sounds to communicate information about a situation. For example blackbirds give a recognizable call for danger but it does not inform others of the type of danger present. Another feature which separates us from animals is creativity. Humans have the ability to understand and produce an infinite number of novel grammatical expressions with little evidence to demonstrate this skill in animals. These differences between species demonstrate the difference between language and communication and have led to other questions about how and why language acquisition was developed (Aitchison, 2007, cited in Green, 2010). Furthermore like any other psychological dichotomy, psychologists and philosophers have questioned whether language shapes our thoughts and ideas or whether our thoughts are merely represented through what we say. One approach which argues against the notion of language influencing thought is the constructivist position. According to this approach, language is seen as an emergent property that unfolds as a result of cognitive development therefore suggesting that language may not determine how we think (Piaget, 1923, cited in Green, 2010). Evidence from PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s (1923) epistemological studies demonstrates how thinking and other cognitive abilities such as symbolic play, mental imagery all exist in children before language development. However one major criticism of this theory suggests that if this idea is to be true, then children with visual or auditory impairment are likely to be handicapped in language due to insufficient sensory input. However research has indicated no difference between the rate and time which impaired children obtain their earliest words compared with seeing children. Bigelow, 1987; Nelson, 1973) Although this evidence rejects PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s (1923) theory, considerations need to be applied for parents of visually impaired children compensating for the impairment. Further issues with PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s (1923) theory suggests that if certain levels of cognitive development are required to assist language ability, then his notion of object permanence should precede the acquisition of concepts and objects Xu (2002) research found opposite results to PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s (1923) ideas which demonstrate how a child as early as 9 months old was capable of distinguishing between two objects. Because of this conflicting information, it is difficult to assign a causal relationship between language and thought within this framework (Xu, 2002, cited in Green, 2010). In addition, the extreme nativist approach led by Fodor (1983), postulates that all concepts are innate and we possess language syntax of thought. His key ideas are centered on the content of concepts and the structure of propositions. Fodor (1983) proposed that some cognitive systems (language) are modular and interface with non-modular central systems such as memory and thinking. One of the main aspects of interest in FodorÃ¢â¬â¢s (1983) framework is the acquisition of concepts. Unlike empiricists who argue that children proceed through a process of inductive generalization to understand a new concept, Fodor (1983) suggests that this is not the case and that concepts are innately pre-programmed and not learnt (Russell, 2004 cited in Green, 2010) He describes vocabulary acquisition as attaching names to pre-existing categories and concepts which are broken down into components until the end point is reached. He also explains how new or complex concepts are developed (. i. e. ipad) by decomposition into their basic elemental components. From this, it would suggest that language develops from already pre-existing concepts or thoughts which would show the directional flow of influence to come from thought rather than speech. Chomsky (2006) is also a staunch proponent for the nativist approach and offers complimentary ideas to FodorÃ¢â¬â¢s (1983) theory on innateness. He argued that the syntax of language is innate and that a universal grammar underpins language. The theory suggested that linguistic ability manifests itself without being taught, and that there are properties that all naturalÃ human languages share (Chomsky, 2006). Exploration of this hypothesis focused on word order, structure and parameters. Universally the random order of words differs amongst cultures. For example in English we use subject-verb-object language compared with those in Japanese who use Subject-Object-Verb. Chomsky (2006) argued that although the mental grammar differs from language to language, the process by which certain sentences are perceived as correct while others are not is universal and independent of meaning. He also argued that language acquisition is obtained through an innate language acquisition device. His theory later evolved into principles and parameters theory and looked at the abstract rules applied when learning a language. One of the key tenets of ChomskyÃ¢â¬â¢s (2006) theory is that language is independent of cognition and does not influence how we think. Criticisms of his theory are highlighted as complete disregard for meaning and the social aspects or environment at which a child first acquires its words. Other critiques look at evidence produced by children with a hearing impairment. Questions surround what kind of parameters they would apply when using sign language. If ChomskyÃ¢â¬â¢s (2006) theory is to be correct then, it does not explain how children who learn two languages at once can apply parameter settings (Messer, 2000 cited in Green, 2010). Contrasting with the nativist approach, linguistic determinism argued in support for the notion that language influences or even determines how we speak. These ideas were first presented in the early 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s by Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf, who studied how languages vary and proposed ways that speakers of different tongues may think differently. Due to lack of empirical evidence at the time, their ideas of determinism (Whorfian hypothesis) were rejected but later reinstated with a weaker, less controversial notion of linguistic relativism, suggesting how language influences thought rather than determines it. Green, 2010) Firstly many of the early studies supporting WhorfÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis derived from studies of colour perception and naming. Brown and Lenneberg, (1954) found cross-cultural differences in the speed of colour naming and recognition, related to colour terms in different languages, though the study found correlations rather than a causal relationship. Additionally later research by Roberson et al, (2000) in the Berinmo people of Papua New Guinea showed findings which do support the Whorfian hypothesis and showed evidence for an effect of language on colour perception (Green, 2010, p. 66-372). Secondly more recent experiments carried out by Boroditsky, Winawer, Withoff, Frank and Wu (2007) investigated whether linguistic differences led to differences in colour discrimination between Russian and English speakers. Unlike English speakers, Russian speakers divide the colour terms on the spectrum differently. For example Russian speakers make a distinct differentiation between lighter blues and darker blues whereas English speakers would categories all colours of blue under on label. The experiment measured colour discrimination performance using a basic perceptual task. The results showed that Russian speakers were faster to discriminate two colours if they were part of the different linguistic categories in Russian than if the two colours were from the same category. Further effects of language were seen with English speakers who did not show any category advantage under any condition hence demonstrating how categories in language can affect performance of colour discrimination or how we speak can influence how we think. Thirdly research has also investigated spatial cognition and non-linguistic tasks and has shown how different cultures spatialize time depending on the available spatial representations (Green, 2010, p. 368). For example Dutch speakers use right and left in relation to object-centered frames of reference compared with the Mayan people of South America who use the compass points (North,South,East,West) for both geographic and object-centered frames of reference. Brown and Levinson (1993) conducted a study to investigate if these different frames of reference influenced the encoding of spatial relationships. The results showed that Dutch and Tzeltal (Mayan) speakers showed differences in reconstruction of a spatial array of objects, depending on encoding in their language which provides support for the Whorfian hypothesis and also shows how we speak can influence how we think. One critique of this experiment is the location of the task was not considered. Li and Gleitman (2002) argued that changing the environment in which spatial tasks occur can change the frame of reference used. The results from their study did demonstrate that within a different environment, participants chose to use a relative frame of reference hence highlighting the importance or significance of environmental factors in determining the frame used. Finally Boroditsky, (2001) also looked at the concept of time and whether aspects of language and culture influence how we think about this domain. Her study investigated how Mandarin and English speakers represent time and whether temporal metaphors differ between the two groups. English and Mandarin speakers both use horizontal (front/back) spatial terms to talk about time but differ in the use of vertical (up/down) spatial terms which are used by Mandarin speakers but not English speakers. Participants from both groups were asked to verify statements in English about temporal relationships from a scene containing objects that were arranged either along the vertical or horizontal dimension. The results showed that both groups organize time from left to right which is consistent with their writing direction but also that Mandarin speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s show evidence of vertical representation of time with earlier events represented further up after vertical priming and no evidence for this in English speakers. The results of this study provide evidence for cross-cultural differences in temporal reasoning and also support for language influencing thought. However compelling this evidence is, these findings have not been replicated in later studies. To conclude, it is clear that the above recent evidence provides support that demonstrates a transactional or causal relationship between both thought and language however due to the lack of successful replication of these results and the requirement for further investigation, once cannot conclude the notion of linguistic determinism. The way we speak does not determine how we think, but is more influential in shaping some aspects and in both directions. One must also consider that certain aspects of this cognitive process are indeed innate, that we are designed with a pre-disposition to develop language as a means of communication. It is also possible that both innateness and linguistic determinism explain different components of the same process, depending on the situation and context we find ourselves in. As the field of cognitive psychology progresses and further evidence is provided we may be able to settle on one explanation or another.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Human Trafficking in the U.S.A Essays Human Trafficking in the U.S.A Essay Human Trafficking in the U.S.A Essay Researched Argument Human trafficking is also called modern day slavery and is defined as holding someone illegally and against their will by form of deception and coercion and turning them into laborers and prostitutes without paying them. It is hard to believe that in the twenty first century, slavery still exists especially here at home and right under our noses. This has been an ongoing problem since the nineteenth century. A lot of people were trafficked into the United States and sold as slaves. Back then there were no laws that stated that it was illegal to traffic human beings and turn hem into slaves. It all starts with a walk through the park in a remote part of Mexico. A young girl named Paloma is taking a stroll to get away from all the stressors in her life. Her mother is very ill and they cannot afford to get her better medical treatment because they are very poor. They live in a shack in Mexico and Paloma has endured a lot of abuse and struggle in her short life there. She was born into poverty and has withstood a lifetime of struggle and this has made her develop a hardy personality. She believes she can face the challenges and come out stronger and better in order o be able to get her family out of indigence. Paloma is approached by an older gentleman who presents himself as an outstanding, prominent businessman with a lot of businesses across Mexico and the United States. He promises her a great escape from the impoverished life she has led. He promises her an education and a job which will help her pay back the money she would owe him for getting her to America. The sixteen year old lady is smitten by the offer and accepts it without even thinking twice. All she can think about is getting her family a better life than what they have been living. Her prince charming has emerged from nowhere and has come to save her. Little does Paloma know that when they arrive to the United States she is going to be a victim of human trafficking rather than the educated secretary that she thought she would be. She ends up being held captive for six months in a dinky apartment in a place that she cannot recognize and forced to submit to the mans demands and needs. Paloma ends up cooking, cleaning and being raped by her captor. He threatens her family with harm and takes all her documents in order to prevent her from escaping. Her prince charming has turned into a beast. During the turn of the century, human trafficking has become inhumane and a lot of people want to be free and live on their own means. Most of the captured slaves back in the day lived in their masters compounds and could not own anything or even have the right to vote. The creation of the 13th. Amendment which state that Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their Jurisdiction. , slavery has been formally abolished. The United States has reated a law to prevent and protect the victims like the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000 which was signed into law by President Bill Clinton. According to Dr. Potocky who is a specialist in refugee resettlement, human rights, international social work, and research methodology TVPA focused on international trafficking, including reducing tr afficking globally, providing assistance to immigrant victims ot trafficking in the United States, and prosecuting traffickers (Potocky 373). Human trafficking has been a major social injustice and the United States must do more to ombat it because the laws are not being enforced properly, it is continuously increasing, and this is due to weak penalties. The TVPA was established in 2000 and was supposed to protect victims of human trafficking and it has yet to curb this crime. Also, statistics show that the number of victims has continuously increased since the mid-1990s and the number of convictions and arrests of traffickers has declined. There are thousands of people in this country who are still going through torture and abuse with no place to turn for help. Lack of enforcement. The TVPA has been amended four times in 2003, 2005, 2008 and 2011 but its pplication and adaptation has been a Joke. To support this claim, research shows that the government is worried about messing the relationship with other countries if they put stricter laws to combat trafficking. The government does not want to put it as number one in their political agenda. As the author Feingold asserts United States sanctions will likely be applied only against countries already subject to sanctions, such as Burma or North Korea (Feingold 30). This shows that the United States government is scared to threaten countries like China or Saudi Arabia because hey do not want to mess the political and economic relationship with them and are just willing to sanction the countries they do not get along with. The laws which are already in place like the TVPA are not strongly enforced making it easier for smugglers to get away with the crime. This is due to corrupt law officials, Judges and prosecutors. Human trafficking is a high profit 13 billion dollar organized crime industry according to a theological ethics professor, Tran. A lot of these criminals are rendering bribes to the officials and in return, they are getting their cases tossed out. So, instead of the police protecting and serving the victims as they are sworn in to do, they are associating with the traffickers and making money out of this crime. This kind of greed pushes way the victims and they get scared of approaching law enforcers to report this type of crime. The author Tran is surely right about the bribery because a lot of sources like Tran, Hodge and Kara have shown that a lot of trafficking crimes are being fuelled by corrupt people in politics and law enforcers. The victims are also scared for their lives because of constant threats and intimidation. Many victims believe that the police are corrupt individuals and are as scared of them as much as they are scared of their captors According to Hodge, an associate professor in the School of Social Work at Arizona State University and who has also written widely on social Justice, cultural diversity, and social inclusion, Another way to help protect women and children is to advocate for stricter penalties for traffickers and consistent enforcement of existing laws (Hodge 15). He asserts that in order to stop the act of human trafficking in the United States, the laws put forth need to be taken seriously and strongly enforced. Until this is done, the victims are going to keep on suffering in the hands of their captors without much or any help. To counter this argument, some research claims that the united states has thoroughly enforced the laws set forth to combat human trafficking. When it comes to human trafficking, the United States needs to amend stricter laws to combat it. This is because human trafficking has been on a steady rise since the 1990s until now. A though this is true that organized crimes are involved in human trafficking, it is nevertheless also true that it mostly involves simple, next door, disorganized criminals. According to Feingold who is a director of the Ophidian Research Institute and international coordinator for HIV/AIDS there is no standard profile on traffickers. They range from truck drivers and village aunties to labor brokers and police officers. (Feingold 28). The authors theory is useful because it sheds light on the fact that anyone can be a trafficker without being involved in a big gang. There are many people like the man who charmed Paloma who are regular people with smooth antics to lure people. Paloma was not kidnapped; she agreed to leave with the man voluntarily in hopes of bettering herself. Family members from destitute families also sell their children and spouses in order to get dowry to survive on. Feingold concedes that organized crime bosses like the late Pablo Escobar are not easy to find. Even if they are involved in human trafficking, they are most likely to be purchasers than transporters. There are a lot of factors that provide a breeding ground for traffickers by taking advantage of the desperate people. According to Kara who is an author, activist and one of the worlds foremost experts on modern day slavery and human trafficking, economic instability, lawlessness, corruption, war and poverty keep on romoting human trafficking. The people are prone to be victims because they are willing to listen to the criminals in hopes of having a better life but at the end they end up falling victims of modern slavery. On the other hand, the author Hughes who is a leading international researcher on human trafficking maintains that prosecution declined in the 1990s even as exploitation of women and children on the internet has increased (Hughes 121). This goes to show that Kara and Hughes both agree that human trafficking has been on the increase in the last decade and a half. To further support this claim, research on human trafficking has been done by some researchers but my best evidence comes from The Journal of International Migration. Authors Gozdziak and Collett are well known researchers who have reviewed existing literature on this topic and come up with startling facts about it. The article claims that there are a number of slippery statistics going on and they are all from the U. S State Department (Gozdziak et al 108). For years the government has been producing quoted estimates of the number of trafficked victims but they are not revealing the methods used to get the data. The numbers have been revised three times between the years of 1999 to 2003 and there is a significant difference in numbers. The surprising fact is that a lot of agencies both local and international are using this statistics instead of conducting their own independent research. Every time the Department of State gets questioned about the differences in numbers, they just say that it is improved methodology which is creating the differences without giving the exact way they come up with it. In the review done by Gozdiak and Collett the number of trafficking victims entering the United States has been revised at east three times: down from 45,000 to 50,000, a figure reached by the.. ClA) in 1999, to 18,000 to 20,000 victims reported in 2003, and even further down to 14,500 to 17,500 (Gozdziak et al 108). This goes to show that the government itself is not sure about its faulty statistics and research is also not backing them. In support of this claim, more research needs to be conducted to find out where the government gets their information. This is because most of the sources that are being used in this p aper do agree that the tgures 1 00 victims in the United States are basically unaccounted for. The author Potocky agrees that the methodology used by the State Department has not been detailed and that the estimates simply disappear from the departments annual report. None of the other sources have come forward and supported Gozdziak, Collett and Potockys claim that the data is incorrect and messy. Also the United States tends to concentrate more in protecting their borders than stopping prostitution and trafficking. They are more concerned with illegal immigrants getting their way into the country and amending stricter U. S immigration policies. While this is a good way to protect the country, the United States is not aking into consideration the fact that this is encouraging human trafficking. According to Tran Unfortunately, this focus on security works to the benefit of organized traffickers (Tran 3). By focusing on homeland security, the government overlooks the deeper issue of trafficking because the illegal immigrants end up putting themselves in the hands of smugglers and end up being snuck into the country and ending up as victims of trafficking. Those unfamiliar with human trafficking may be interested to know that it basically boils down to the counterargument of whether the United States has enough resources to combat uman resources. The truth is that the United States claims that it does not have enough financial resources to combat this type of crime. According to the Department of State website Through targeted foreign assistance, the TIP Office funds programs that address human trafficking, the act of obtaining or maintaining another person in compelled service. (Baca). The state has been looking for grants from other nations to help combat trafficking. When the grants are allocated, they hold a grant competition and different organizations compete for the money with the exception of for profit organizations. The organizations have asked for a total of 95 million dollars in funds but the state budget is only 750,000 dollars. With this kind of figures, how do we expect the United States to combat human trafficking? Another problem is the fact that the United States only convicts a small percentage of traffickers compared to the huge amount of victims here. Potocky agrees when she writes that When U. S attorneys decide to prosecute a. case, the conviction rate is very high: 96%. However, U. S attorneys decline to prosecute app 60% of cases (Potocky 375). She also asserts that between 2001 and 2007, there were 449 ederal prosecutions and 342 of them were human trafficking convictions. With this trend going on, the only conclusion is that there is a big problem with prosecution of the traffickers. Feingold supports Potockys claim by stating that from the year 2001 to the year 2003, 110 traffickers were prosecuted but only 77 pled guilty or were convicted. The reason that the trafficking convictions are so scarce also lies with the mindsets of the victims. According to Hodge, the victims are scared to testify against the attackers because most of the traffickers get out of Jail soon after their arrest. Author Davis who has been involved in the fight to end modern day slavery since 2003 when he became the Goodwill Ambassador for the organization Face to Face Bulgaria claims that tra ffickers are also very hard to track since they move their victims from one place to another.. Paloma on the other hand is a very lucky girl because she managed to escape her captor and is now in witness protection and lives here in America, fighting to rescue victims of human trafficking. Not everyone nas the chance to escape alive because it they are caught, death is the only choice they have. The United States needs to come up with other solutions to combat this heinous crime and some people have suggested legalizing prostitution. Some countries like Netherlands have legalized adult prostitution and the results have been a significant increase in child prostitution according to Hodge. The State Department agrees when they write that, Where prostitution is legalized or tolerated, there is a greater demand for human trafficking victims and nearly always an increase in the number of women and children trafficked into commercial sex slavery. (Feingold 28). So this is not a solution to the problem but Just adding fuel to he fire. Sweden has the Swedish Model which is a law that was put forth to combat trafficking. The law criminalizes the customers who buy sex instead of the prostitutes while in Thailand, they opt to extend labor and social security laws to the sex workers. Both countries have a large group that opposes and assert that these kind of laws will increase trafficking and criminals. The United States does criminalize people who sleep with prostitutes and also arrest any party involved in the act including the prostitutes themselves. Make human trafficking zero tolerance to where nyone caught trafficking or helping someone who is a trafficker is put away for good or handed hard labor. Educate the social workers and law enforcement officials on how to better detect victims of human trafficking. This is because there are a lot of victims who are being arrested and deported back to their prospective countries because they are mistaken for Just illegal immigrants. These victims are not given a chance to explain themselves because this is a very Judgmental country and Just your accent can make anyone suspicious. How many times have people been discriminated against because they looked different and talked different? We all live in a world which is unjust and unequal. People are Just marred by greed and end up forgetting the morals they were taught when young. The government is too busy with bad politics and covering their tracks instead of protecting its people, the laws of our country are becoming an abomination because of lack of enforcement. Young innocent girls like Paloma, peoples mothers, husbands, and children are being tortured and abused all in the name of making money. It is up to our country to establish better laws and enforce them strongly in order to end human trafficking. The government needs to make the laws so tough to the point where no one would want to break them. Instead of giving traffickers a year or five in prison, give them a lifetime sentence because they are denying other humans a right to freedom. Let everyone put themselves in Palomas shoes and think of what she went through. It is not only the government which should take steps to stop this atrocity but for all the citizens of this nation. Educate each other about the morals of society by holding informational meetings and inviting victims and task force members to speak at schools and other functions. Look out for the people who work around you and learn to identify a victim from how they behave. The victims can be the workers in the strip clubs you frequent, or a maid in a friends house or a dish washer in your favorite diner. Also, look out for those false front agencies, massage parlors and brothels which are set up to lure victims. With the community helping to combat human trafficking, the government should have the sense to amend stricter laws to end trafficking and put forth enough money to help the agencies which are working hard to end it . Let the modern day slavery come to an end betore you tall victim ot it ourself, it is a small world and what goes around, simply comes back around. You might escape it but what about your children. No one wants slavery to be legal again, so why should human trafficking be condoned? Baca D. Lou. FY 2014 solicitation. U. S Department of state. 17 oct. 2013. web. 10 Nov. 2013. Davis, Michael Cory. Human Trafficking. Hispanic 20. 8: 46-48. Academic search premier. sept. 2007. web. 25 sept. 2013. Feingold, David. Human Trafficking. Foreign Policy, No. 150: 26-30, 3230. Jstor. Aug. 2005. web. 28 sept. 2013. Gozdziak, M. Elzbieta. , and Elizabeth A. Collett. Research on Human Trafficking In North America: A Review of Literature. International Migration 43. 1/2 (2005): 99-128. Academic Search Premier. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. Hodge, David R. Sexual Trafficking In The United States: A Domestic Problem With Transnational Dimensions. Social Work 53. 2: 143-152. 2008. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Sept. 2013. Hughes, Donna M. Prostitution Online. Journal of Trauma Practice 2. 3/4: 115-131. Academic Search Premier. 2003. Web. 10 Nov. 2013. Kara, Siddharth. Supply And Demand. Harvard International Review 33. 2 (201 1): 66-71. Academic Search Premier. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. Potocky, Miriam. The Travesty of Human Trafficking: A Decade of Failed U. S. Policy. Social Work 55(4), 373-5. Proquest. Oct. 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2013. Schiller, Ben. US Slaverys Diaspora: Black Atlantic History at the Crossroads of Race, Enslavement, and Colonisation. Slavery Abolition 32. 2: 199-212. Historical Abstracts. June 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. Tran, Jonathan. Sold into Slavery. Christian century 124 (24): 22-6. SIRS Issues Researcher. 27 NOV. 2007 web. 24 Sep. 2013. loc. gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/13thamendment. html
Saturday, November 23, 2019
bismarck vs. napoleon essays How do gender issues contribute to the conflict in Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House and Federico Garcia Lorcas The House of Bernarda Alba? Gender Issues play a major role in contributing to the conflicts of Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House and Federico Garcia Lorcas The House of Bernarda Alba. These gender issues are brought across by the portrayal of the women, the relationships between men and women, the isolation that is suffered by the female characters and how through all this they undergo a build up in character. All these factors contribute to an effective endings in both plays, where the central conflict of gender issues is brought to the forefront in a dramatic scene. When studying Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House and Federico Garcia Lorcas The House of Bernarda Alba, is important to note the portrayal of women through dialogue. A Dolls House focuses on the way that women are seen, primarily in the context of marriage and motherhood. It is strongly brought across that it is the sole duty of a woman to care for her children and to honor and obey her husband. Ibsen further aids this by the way in which he depicts the society his protagonist, Nora, has grown up in. Ibsen emphasizes how middle-class life for women indeed was; limiting, brutal and unforgiving. The society that is portrayed for the reader in A Dolls House appears to be an agreeable yet superficial one. It is brought across that however, that life in such a society comes at a price; one must comply with certain view points and obey certain rules of proper conduct, these are in many ways very limiting of freedom, extremely narrow and brutally enforced, if such rules are broken, it is unforgivable, as is evident at the plays ending. ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Business strategy - Essay Example Disruptors also play a major role for gaining competitive advantages. Disruptors break old boundaries of business and implements new things into business. This case study describe about the rhetoric structure and disruptors of Ford Company. By managing knowledge effectively the Ford implemented a disruptor which created a competitive advantage for the company. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s different rhetoric structure contributed a lot to enhance its products and business process. Ford invented a very innovative technology which helped the company to design its one of best selling truck. The company used aluminium in a high quantity to make the body of truck. It became an important feature for the company for saving its cost. The competitor of Ford does not have such features in its product. It helped the company in many ways to gain its market. The case study chosen revolves around best-selling pick-up truck of Ford. Ford F-150 contributed majorly towards global profit margins of the company. The company gained competitive advantage through designing a vehicle of aluminium. This was a rare concept and helped in reducing fuel consumption rate to desirable extent. Automobile industry is a part of oligopoly market structure. This industry is dominated by big five players such as General Motors, Ford, Honda, Toyota and Chrysler. There are certain key objectives of FordÃ¢â¬â¢s competitors which can be stated as acquiring maximum profit share, technological leadership, growth of market share and service leadership. Ford comprises of 8 brands Ã¢â¬â Ford, Volvo, Land Rover, Jaguar, Lincoln, Mazda, Mercury and Aston Martin. Differentiation techniques have been adopted by the organization in order to stay competitive in the market place. Safety, advanced technology and innovative designs are the basis of their competency set. P orterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces model can be applied on Ford in order
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Analyzing Management Strategies Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
Analyzing Management Strategies - Research Paper Example The model of management as guided by the theory of TQM supports process ownership in a manner that cultivates team work and eliminates any forms of hierarchies that impede the quality of work through bureaucratic challenges and structural disconnection of the processes within the organization. It is important to consider the fact that some of the issues that attend to the processes of TQM depend on the nature of management and the organizational structure of the firm. On this score, the organization must manage its internal processes in a manner that cultivates harmony across the various processes. A distinguishing aspect of TQM is that it is related to the aspect of information sharing and process regulation (Oakland, 2000). All the distinct components in the supply chain are usually involved in the process for the purpose of enhancing the nature of information sharing and process management. On this score, it becomes important to consider some of the issues that attend to the manag ement of process within the level of management. A key advantage of TQM theory over other theoretical frameworks is that it is basically customer-centered. It actively brings the customer within the processes of the organization in order to capture the rhythms and essence of the market from the perspective of customer preferences, trends on the market, and the general nature of the market. In usual cases, these processes are meant to attract and retain customers through the provision quality services that ensure the retention of the customer base and the maintenance of the market segment. In essence, the processes of management is tailored on the need to develop a process that supplies the basic essence of management in a manner that harmonizes operations across the various processes that relate to issues of management. The theory of Total Quality Management could apply to various processes that regard matters of managerial dynamisms. An example of the areas where such processes cou ld apply is in the food and beverages industry. Total Quality Management requires the harmonization of processes in a way that ensures quality delivery of services and the satisfaction of the customers. The food and beverages industry is usually associated with high levels of risk and losses. By applying the theories of TQM, it becomes possible to regulate the processes in the food and beverages industry in a manner that aligns well with the processes of production, supply, management, and marketing. Companies such as McDonalds and other PepsiCo Inc usually apply the processes of TQM for the purpose of achieving optimum production, high levels of quality, and customer satisfaction. The various integrated processes in TQM usually work in ways that propel organizations towards high levels of profitability and growth. Some of the challenges that attend to the application of the theory of total quality management is that the nature of organizations has undergone significant shifts in st ructures and processes. The advent of globalization, liberalization, and the developments in the information, communication, and technology sector has redefined the working environment in ways that affect the process of integration,
Sunday, November 17, 2019
1920s medicine Essay The 1920s had many discoveries and innovations when it comes to medicine and science. Many of the things that we now take for granted were just getting their start during the 20s. Throughout the 1920s, new innovations in the medical and science field led to the discovery of vitamins and knowing more than ever before about the human body. New vital drugs and vaccines were created in this era that are hard to imagine not having today. The invention/discovery of the first anti-bacterial drugs saved more people from bacterial and viral infections than any previous time. Before the 1920s many medical conditions were untreatable or even deadly that we now consider to be easily cared for. Penicillin was one of the big medical discoveries of the 20s, the worlds first antibiotic. Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Flemming when he was examining mold and bacterial growth. This discovery opened up the possibilities for killing bacterial infections and without this many other medical innovations would not have occurred. Insulin was another major medical discovery in the 20s. Without this people with diebetes would not be able to properly treat their condition and thousands would die from a now treatable disorder. Various types of vitamins were also discovered in the 20s that help people today stay healthy. The medical field would not be what it is today if it wasnt for the research put in by people of the 1920s. Millions of lives were saved due to the medical discoveries that were made in the 1920s. Without Penicillin, there may have never been any antibiotics created and a bacterial infection would mean a slow death. Insulin saves those with diebetes lives daily and without it diebetes would be considered a deadly condition. Life just wouldnt be the same today if none of medical innovations of the 20s happened.
Friday, November 15, 2019
I am very interested in how a person could psychologically and physically feel the need to gamble. It interests me that a compulsion could turn into physical want and pain if the compulsion isnÃ¢â¬â¢t fulfilled. This could actually be classified as an addiction, which some people would also classify it as a disease. People gamble for many different reasons. Some people do it for the excitement in which it will make them feel a release of adrenaline. Another reason why some people do it is because they are very competitive and they want to feel the burst of energy that they would possibly get from beating other players or even the dealer. Another thing that pulls them in would be the risk of it all. They make a high dollar bet and the moments in between that bet being placed and the outcome send a thrill throughout their body, wondering what the outcome will be. Some people believe that if they gamble, they will be able to solve financial issues such as not being able to pay monthly bills, alimony, child support, foreclosure, etc. Other people find gambling can be a way that they run from stress and they feel that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the need to worry about lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s issues. With gambling being an addiction, people will make excuses as to why they do it. Gambling is a lot like drinking alcohol. Some people argue that doing any gambling, like drinking any alcohol, is a bad thing and will only lead to problems that will build up and become much worse. Other people argue that doing sensible gambling in moderation, like drinking in moderation, is perfectly acceptable and a safe thing to do. They do, however, have some rules that make the sensible gambling seen Ã¢â¬Å"okayÃ¢â¬ to them. Here are some of the rules. Some people believe that you need to sta... ...es you wish there was something more that you could do to help. It is hard for people to admit to having this problem so there are probably more people out there then we would ever know. Works Cited Foundation, M. H. (2011). Gambling. Retrieved from Mental Health Foundation: http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/help-information/mental-health-a-z/G/gambling/ Health, W. (2009). Gambling. Retrieved from Women's Health: http://www.womens-healthcare.org/mental-health/gambling.html Jean Segal, M. S. (2013, July 13). Gambling Addiction & Problem Gambling: Warning Signs and How to Get Help. Retrieved from Helpguide: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/gambling_addiction.php Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, M. (2013, Novemeber 26). Gambling Addiction (Compulsive or Pathological Gambling). Retrieved from MedicineNet: http://www.onhealth.com/gambling_addiction/article.htm
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
A false statement made to induce a party to enter into a contract. Misprepresentation Ã¢â¬â if proved Ã¢â¬â renders a contract voidable (see: VoidableContract). Three (perhaps four) factors must be established to succeed in a claim of mispresentation. (i) there must be an unambiguous false statement of existing fact (or perhaps law); (ii) it must be addressed to the party misled; (iii) it must induce the contract; (iv) (perhaps) it must be material, that is, one which would induce a `reasonable man' to contract in those circumstances. Grounds for misrepresentation (i) There must be an unambiguous statement of existing fact.Since Kleinwort Benson v Lincoln CC (1991) it might be the case that a statement of law may also found a misrepresentation Ã¢â¬â although that case concerned resitutionary remedies for money paid under a mistake of law, rather than contract. Three classes of statement are generally not held to be representations: (a) `puffs', (b) opinions, and (c) intentio ns. (a) It can be difficult to distinguish a misrepresentation from a `puff', that is, an advertising or promotional statement which is not intended to be binding (Dimmock v Hallett (1866), in which it was representated that land was `fertile and improveable). b) A statement of opinion is not a representation (Bisset v Wilkinson (1927)) unless the opinion of the person making the representation has some special weight, e. g. , he or she is a professional employed to give such opinion (Esso v Mardon (1976)). (c) A statement of intention Ã¢â¬â if honestly held Ã¢â¬â cannot be a misrepresentation; however, my intention is a fact and it can be dishonestly represented Ã¢â¬â Edgington v Fitzmaurice (1885). (ii) The statement must be addressed to the person misled. (iii) The statement must induce the contract.It need not be the sole inducement (Edgington v Fitzmaurice (1885)). This test will fail when (a) the representee is actually unaware of the representation (Horsfall v Thomas (1862)), (b) the representee knows the statement is untrue, and (c) where the representee is patently unaffected by the statement. (c) is likely where the representee takes other steps to establish the validity of the statement (Atwood v Small (1838)). In general, the fact that the false statement could have been discovered with due diligence will not prevent it being concluded hat it induced the contract (RedgraveVHurd1881) but more recently it has been suggested that a misrepresentation does not induce where it would be highly reasonable to expect the representee to check the validity of the statements (SmithVEricSBush1990). (iv) (Perhaps) the statement must be `material', that is, one that would induce the contract in a reasonable man. Currently this criterion is doubted. Modern practice seems to be to incorporate this requirement into consideration of whether the misrepresentation did induce the contract.Types of misrepresentation Fraudulent misrepresentation This overlaps with the TortOfDeceit. The misrepresentation must be intentional and dishonest (DerryVPeek1888). Damages are not limited by remoteness (see CausationInNegligence). Rescission may be awarded. Negligent misrepresentation The misrepresentation was not intended to deceive, but nevertheless the defendant is in breach of a DutyOfCare to the claimant. Rescission may be awarded. Innocent misrepresentation The mispresentation was neither fraudulent nor negligent.In general, damages are not available, but rescission may be awarded. See also MisrepresentationAct1967. Misrepresentation Act (1967) s. 2(1) of this Act is extremely important for claimant seeking compensation for Misrepresentation. It has the effect of shifting the burden of proof from the claimant to the defendant; that is, if the claimant alleges that the defendant made a negligent misrepresentation, the onus is on the defendant to show that he had good grounds for believing the representation to be true.The Act also makes it possibl e for the court to award damages in misrepresentation cases, where Rescission would not be available. Another effect of the Act, or at least of the way the Act has been interpreted by judges, is to allow the claimant to recover not just forseeable losses, but all direct losses. This seems to follow from the wording Ã¢â¬â the Act says that a misrepresentation should be treated as deceitful, despite there being no dishonesty, unless the defendant can show that he was not negligent.It seem unlikely (to me at least) that the creators of the statute had in mind that damages for negligent misrepresentation should be as extensive as fraudulent misrepresentation, but there are a number of cases that suggest that judges don't see things the same way. rescission To rescind a Contract is to treat it as terminated, perhaps because one party is in breach (see: RepudiationOfContract), or because the contract is voidable (e. g. , for Misrepresentation). voidable contractUnlike a void contract ( see: VoidContract), whose legal status is as if it never existed, a voidable contract is one that remains in force until it is declared void by one of the contracting parties. For example, one of the parties may fraudulently misrepresent a service to be offered. The offended party may then declare the contract void and refuse to be bound by it (see: Contract). However, if goods are exchanged under the contract before it is voided, then title is passed. With a void contract no title passes, because effectively the contract never existed.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
American vs. Haitian Revolution While the revolutions in colonial America and Haiti had much compatibility, they were also unique in their own ways. In both revolutions, the rebels revolted against a foreign superpower that was in a weakened economic state in order to gain economic and social freedom. However, the Haiti revolution stressed freedom for everybody, including slaves, unlike the American Revolution that basically focused on the needs of the middle class. The revolutions in both of these countries revolutions would have been unsuccessful if it were not for the crippling problems faced by both opposing superpowers. The success of the Haitian revolution was due in no small part to the political turmoil brought about by the French revolution. This weakened the ability of the colonial administrators in Haiti to maintain order and caused the authority of colonial officials to no longer be clear; even the very legitimacy of slavery was even being challenged in France. The turmoil in France and Haiti paved the way for a struggle between the elite plantation owners and the free black slave owners. This fighting in turn gave the slaves, under the leadership of Toussaint L'Ouverture, the unheard of opportunity to revolt against their owners and emancipates them from a brutal system of bondage (Corbet). The revolution in the Americans was against its mother country, Great Britain, and unlike Haiti, the British army was in full force when war broke. There were, however, economic weaknesses that led to the inevitable revolution against Britain. Britain was burdened by debts from the French and Indian War, and therefore taxed the colonies substantially to make up for this. The ideologies of the revolutions in both Haiti and America were very similar. In America, philosophers such as Thomas Paine and John Locke preached social and economic freedom. Thomas Paine writes, Ã¢â¬Å"And he hathÃ¢â¬ ¦
Friday, November 8, 2019
The Theories Of Structuralism And Functionalism Psychology Essay Essays The Theories Of Structuralism And Functionalism Psychology Essay Paper The Theories Of Structuralism And Functionalism Psychology Essay Paper This research paper will explicate both theories of structural linguistics and functionalism by utilizing the dualist prospective to explicate the interactive form between both these theories with the head and organic structure. Furthermore there will be an account of how both structural linguistics and functionalism have impacted the pattern of psychological science in these modern times. Then there will be an account about how both these theories are needed to depict our witting head and how they interact with the organic structure. The Theories of Structuralism and Functionalism Since the Begin of clip, philosophers have been debating the issue of Structuralism and Functionalism theories for many old ages now and as of yet there is still no existent scrupless as to which theory is corrects, even in these modern times the argument still prevail to this today. There are so many different point of views about these theories that you have to make your ain research to happen out which one is right for your belief system. The procedure that will be used to explicate both theories of Structuralism and Functionalism interaction with the head and organic structure will be the Dualism prospective. Furthermore there will be an account of how both these theories have impacted the pattern of psychological science in these modern times. Then there will be an account about how both these theories are needed to depict our witting head and how they interact with the organic structure. Dualism Prospective This subdivision will explicate how the Dualism prospective will used to explicate both theories of Structuralism and Functionalism and how they interactions with the head and organic structure. Harmonizing to Goodwin, ( 2008 ) dualism views the head and the organic structure as two distinguishable entities, and that one can and does be entirely. The centrepiece of the human head is its ability to ground, whereas the organic structure is the machine. Descartes believed that the head can hold influence on the organic structure and the organic structure can hold influence on the head. This mind-body interaction is based on automatic response system. The physiological reaction is an automatic stimulus-response reaction that provides a physiological theoretical account for Descartes believes system on the mind-body inquiry. Descartes explained physiological reactions as thin wire like fibrils that occurred within the nervousnesss and reaches out to the encephalon. When the senses were stimulated these fibrils would travel doing certain pores within the encephalon to open up. The procedure of the energy flow would bring forth the automatic motion. This automatic action can b esides give rise to the motion of energy flow in the encephalon. This procedure leads the head to intentionally doing determinations to move ( Goodwin, 2008 ) . The dualism procedure can be used to explicate how the head can interact with the organic structure by utilizing the automatic response to relay the messages to the different organic structure parts. When you come to cognize each structural constituent within the encephalon, so you can understand the functional facets of how the encephalon interacts with the remainder of the organic structure. The procedure can be used to derive a better apprehension of all psychological and biological constituent of the human organic structure, which is closed system. The head and organic structure influences each other on how they will respond to any given state of affairs that may originate within our societal environment. The head and organic structure are separate entities that work together to keep the whole system. Structuralism and Functionalism This subdivision will explicate Structuralism and Functionalism theories and how both these theories have impacted the pattern of psychological science. Structuralism Harmonizing to Goodwin, ( 2008 ) Structuralism were more concerned with inquiring the inquiry What is consciousness? and the chief ends for Structuralism psychological science are to analyze the experiences in the human witting and interrupt them down into their elemental units, which show how these units could bring forth the mental procedures. To derive a complete apprehension of the grownup head, the structuralist s used research lab research to explicate the mental procedures. This procedure allowed them to understand the workings of the encephalon and nervous system. The chief constituents of witting experience are esthesiss and their affects. These esthesiss have the features of being different with the strength, continuance, and lucidity of their affects, whereas the features of images are nt every bit clear as esthesiss, because they lack lucidity. Structural psychological science used pure research lab scientific discipline to detect the basic construction of human conscio usness. Structuralism was responsible for doing psychological science into scientific attack by utilizing laboratory research to back up their decisions through experimenting under controlled conditions. Structuralism was the beginning of experimental psychological science with it systematic method of self-contemplation ( Goodwin, 2008 ) . Functionalism Harmonizing to Angell, ( 1907 ) the functional psychological science has three principal that signifier this theory. Functionalism is regarded as the psychological science of mental procedures alternatively of mental constituents. The first principal is to bring out how and why of human consciousness. Functionalism deals with the job of the head by negociating between the environment and the being. This procedure brings about apprehension of the cardinal psychological science of the human consciousness within the head. The 2nd principal is to find the procedure of consciousness and how they could be categorization. Functionalism has been described as both psychological science and physical in its attack. Functionalism understood the demand for the mind-body relationship when covering with the human consciousness. Presently functional psychological science has a wide, flexible of position point in psychological science ( Angell, 1907 ) . Harmonizing to Goodwin, ( 2008 ) he pointed out that functionalists were more involved with the inquiry of What is consciousness for? This brought about the survey of subjects runing from developmental to unnatural psychological science. As a consequence from these surveies they became interested in the differences among persons and how psychological science could be used to decide mundane jobs. Functionalism used the trial-and-error acquisition procedure with the scientific acquisition procedure that occurs through the creative activity of connexions between stimulation and responses theoretical account. The stimulation and responses theoretical account were successful in the making a acquisition procedure that make up the Law of Effect . These connexions were strengthened with repeat of the state of affairss and responses, which made up the Law of Exercise . The educational patterns were influenced by the Stimulus-Response theoretical account and the Stimulus-Organism-Resp onse model that was in behavior acquisition. Functionalism has branched off into assorted psychological Fieldss ; it has become the taking portion in applied, educational, behavioural, cognitive, societal, developmental, unnatural, and biological with cultural influences when psychological science practicians were perpetrating to normally one forte ( Goodwin, 2008 ) . The Mind And Body This subdivision will depict how both theories are needed to explicate how our head and organic structure work together. Harmonizing to Angell, ( 1903 ) there can be no theoretical differentiations between doctrine and psychological science, when psychological science is interpreted as both structural and functional in their procedures. The differentiation between doctrine and psychological science is mostly the result of the prevalent effort to do psychological an fact-finding scientific discipline after the mode of biological process that treats the head as an being from a structural and functional prospective. The deductions are that structural and functional facets of the head and organic structure are features of two procedures for the same intent. Psychology ca nt, hence, curtail itself to simply structural jobs, but inquiries as to what the makeup the witting head and organic structure. The operations that are performed, can non reply the inquiries without demoing how and why they are performed ( Angell, 1903 ) . Harmonizing to Matarazzo, ( 1987 ) William A. Hunt began his calling analyzing psychological science by uniting structural linguistics and functionalism in the field of psychological science. When Hunt mastered the experimental method of self-contemplation, he used it to the survey of human emotions ( Matarazzo, 1987 ) . Decision In decision the dualism procedure can be used to explicate how the head can interact with the organic structure by utilizing the automatic response to relay the messages to the different organic structure parts. When you combined structural cognition of the constituent within the encephalon, with the apprehension of functional facets of how the encephalon plants and interacts with the remainder of the organic structure, so you can derive a better apprehension of all psychological and biological constituent of the human organic structure, which is closed system. The head and organic structure influences each other on how they will respond to any given state of affairs that may originate within our societal environment. The head and organic structure are separate entities that work together to keep the whole system.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Careers for an Economics Major Being an economics major means youve taken (or will take) classes that explore finance, psychology, logic, and mathematics, among others. But just what kinds of jobs can you look for that will utilize everything youve learned and done as an economics major? Fortunately, an economics major allows you to take a variety of interesting, engaging, and rewarding jobs. Jobs for Economics Majors 1. Teach. You chose to pursue a career in economics because you love it- and, most likely, because someone somewhere along the way helped spark that passion in both your heart and brain. Consider igniting that kind of interest in someone else by teaching. 2. Tutor. Economics may come easy to you, but many people struggle with it. You just might be able to make a career out of tutoring economics to high school students, college students, and anyone else who needs a little help. 3. Work at a college or university doing research. Think about it: You already have connections at your institution in the Economics department, and youre one of the freshest minds on the market. Consider doing academic research with a professor or department at your own or a nearby college or university. 4. Work at an institute doing research. If you like the idea of research but want to branch out a little from your college days, consider doing research at a think tank or other research institute. 5. Work for an economics magazine or journal. As an economics major, you no doubt came to understand how important journals are in the field. Working at a magazine or journal can be a really great gig that exposes you to a ton of new ideas and people. 6. Work for a large company in the business department. Put your economics training to good use by working on the business side of things for a large company. 7. Work at a nonprofit that helps people improve their economic situation in America. Fortunately, there are an abundance of nonprofits out there that help people do everything from save for a house, learn how to budget better, or get out of debt. Find one that matches your interests and see if theyre hiring. 8. Work at a nonprofit that helps people internationally. Other nonprofits work to improve the economic conditions of people across the globe. If you want a larger impact, consider working for a nonprofit with an international mission you believe in. 9. Work at an investment or financial planning firm. Learning more about the markets in a hands-on kind of way can be an interesting, exciting job. Find an investment or financial planning firm that has an ethos you like and see what you can do! 10. Help a nonprofit with the business side of the house. Nonprofits do great work, from helping promote community gardens to bringing music into classrooms. They all, however, have to make sure their business affairs are in order- and need people like you to help. 11. Work in the government. The government has many different offices and departments that deal with the business side of governance. See whos hiring and go to bed knowing youre helping your career and Uncle Sam. 12. Work for a political organization. Political organizations (including election campaigns) often need advice on handling economics issues, creating policy positions, etc. Put your training to use while also being involved in the political system. 13. Work for a consulting firm. Consulting firms can be a great gig for someone who knows theyre interested in finance and business, but isnt sure yet about which sector theyd like to go into. Consulting will expose you to a lot of different companies and situations while providing you with a reliable and interesting job. 14. Work in journalism. Econ major? In journalism? Explaining things like economic policy, the markets, corporate culture, and business trends is very difficult for many people- except economics majors, who often have a better understanding of these kinds of issues than most folks out there. Consider using your understanding of all-things-economics-related to help others understand them better, too.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Why is child obesity on the rise - Research Paper Example BMI is a measurement that compares a personÃ¢â¬â¢s weight and height. Children suffering from obesity experience medical and psychological effects. Children suffering from obesity are more likely to suffer from type II diabetes, heart diseases, sleep apnea, pancreatic complications, asthma and liver problems. Obese children may suffer from depression, low self esteem and emotional eating. Medical and psychological problems may interfere with academic progress as well as successful transition of children from childhood to adulthood. Furthermore, parents or guardians of obese children spent a lot of money to treat illness associated with obesity. It is because of the above reasons that World Health Organization has declared obesity as a public health global epidemic that must be contained. The number of children suffering from obesity in Central Valley of California is increasing. According to the research conducted by The Central Valley Health Policy Institute at California State Un iversity, obesity in the valley is higher than average obesity rates in the whole of California. The prevalence rate of children suffering from obesity in Central valley has more than tripled in the recent times. According to Rivera (2005), Central Valley has the highest percentage of overweight children at 42 percent. Increased rates of obesity in the Central Valley is attributed to higher levels of poverty, limited access to healthy food and reduced opportunities for physical activities. There are various interventions that have been made by schools, department of health and community based organization to reduce the incidence of obesity in children. The interventions include increased provision of vegetables and fruits as well as increased physical activities in children among others. These interventions must be increased in scope and intensity to be more effective to reduce psychological, medical and economic challenges that will interfere with children, parents and community at large. 2.0 Historical Context World Health Organization claimed that obesity is leading cause of preventable death as well as disability globally. Obesity is also linked with increasing number of chronic diseases. Obesity was rare before twentieth century. World Health organization recognized obesity as a global epidemic in 1997. In 2005, World Health Organization estimated that about four hundred million adults were obese. This is about 9.8 percent of the global adult population. Obesity rates increases as people get older. Obesity rates are severe with people above fifty years in the United States, Canada and Australia. However, more children are diagnosed with obesity each passing day. Obesity is a medical condition where a child accumulates excess fats in the body. Obese children are overweight with body mass index above 30. According to WHO (2004), Body Mass Index (BMI) indicate weather a person is underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. A child is underweight if BMI is less than 18.50, normal weight BMI is between 18.50 - 24.99, overweight BMI is 25.00 - 29.99 and obese children have BMI of 30.00 and above (refer to table 1). Obesity is a serious health issue because it causes untold suffering to the children and increases the cost of treatment. Ogden et al (20101) revealed that preschool children between two and five years suffering from obesity increased from 5 percent to 10.4 percent from 1980 to 2008.
Friday, November 1, 2019
Facebook - Essay Example This entails posting or getting the discussion started, and then coordinating the protest march. Getting the discussion started regulates the extremity of the responses, where people share information and knowledge regarding certain issues. Online regulation of information enhances closeness between various groups of people. Users give their comments and ideas regarding an issue if only guided at the beginning; otherwise, the effectiveness may be distorted since different people possess diverse views and objectives in their use of social networking sites (Lee & Ingraffea, 2007). The regular plug is effective in promoting the effective communication for Facebook users. The regular signing in enhances build-up of one community. This also promotes interaction since a person can confirm availability through saying something. Facebook hosts over 800 million users out of which only 50% log on daily. It is critical that people take advantage to interact daily with their community as well as engage their community so as to announce their presence. Authenticity enhances effective communication where a person writes and comments anything without any fear, regardless of the location. The personÃ¢â¬â¢s values clearly show up from the posts, and this is critical when posting a link, communicating with a certain group, or when responding to a topic (Lee & Ingraffea, 2007). Brevity is critical in order to keep ones words concise and to the point. Brevity forms a vital component of the social media literacy. Research by Buddy Media indicates that Facebook posts with over 80 characters possess 27% change of engagement. Research indicates that people often get tired after the first minute of reading. Consideration of Facebook as a public space is critical where a person should not comment on anything he or she cannot say in public, and people should be positive when using the social networking site. Every person may have unpleasant experiences; however, this should not
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Site Contamination - Derby Pride Park - Research Paper Example The paper tells that soil pollution is a very critical health related issue. Both soil pollution and groundwater pollution adversely affect the health of humans, plants, and marine life. Ã¢â¬Å"Soil contamination can also affect those who touch itÃ¢â¬ . If we talk about groundwater pollution, we can say that it is even more dangerous because it directly affects human as well as marine life. Discharged water contains such substances, which are very harmful for the health of human beings. Before going to propose a site decontamination plan for the Derby Pride Park, let us get a brief overview of sources of contamination and some methods to decontaminate the polluted sites. There are various sources of contamination production. These sources include food, dietary supplements which are very rare, drugs, industrial discharge from chemical industries, pesticides that come from farming areas, and various detergents and fertilizers. Ã¢â¬Å"The potable water becomes wastewater after it gets contaminated with natural or synthetic microbiological compoundsÃ¢â¬ . Groundwater from the neighboring fields is also a source of contamination. Ã¢â¬Å"Groundwater moves slowly and continuously through the open spaces in soil and rockÃ¢â¬ . Another major source of contamination is those chemical processes, which are used to take out the required minerals from rocks because raw material containing the minerals is often stored in impure and contaminated surfaces, which results in contamination of minerals. So it is strictly advised to keep the surfaces clean on which the raw material is to be placed. Remediation Remediation means decontamination of the polluted sites. The process of
Monday, October 28, 2019
Jane Eyre Essay The novel Jane Eyre was originally published in London, England in 1847 by Smith, Elder Co. The early editions of the novel were given the subtitle An Autobiography and named Currer Bell as the editor, not the author. The subtitle was dropped in subsequent editions of the novel. During the days when the novel was published, it was popularly believed that men and women had different duties and responsibilities. Women were encouraged to be devoted and submissive to their husbands. The ideal woman was passive, charming, self-sacrificing and pure. Jane Eyre and other works of the Charlotte and her sisters were centred around the lives of protagonists who did not conform to these societal ideals. Thus, in order to hide their true identities and genders, the three Bronte sisters published their works under pseudonyms. These were Acton Bell (Anne Bronte), Ellis Bell (Emily Bronte) and Currer Bell (Charlotte Bronte). Despite its immediate popularity, Jane Eyre was condemned by its earliest critics as anti-Christian. These negative reviews can be attributed to the generally rebellious tone of the novel. Through the description of the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s life, including those related to her social status and matters of the heart, the reader is presented with several social and political issues. The novel questions societyÃ¢â¬â¢s view of women, the importance of the arts and the basis of a solid marriage. Based on the standards of the society in the days when the novel was first published, Jane Eyre as a character lead an immoral life. Jane fell in love and lusted after a married man, was proposed to by her cousin, and describes a clergymen as hypocritical and greedy. The novel is written in such a manner that the reader empathizes with Jane, and in doing so, leads the reader to question his or her beliefs. The novel is also explicitly anti-Christian in that Jane questions the existence and importance of God. During her days at Lowood, JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s close friend, Helen Burns contracts tuberculosis. On her deathbed, Helen calmly reassures Jane that by dying young, she is escaping great sufferings, and will go to God. Jane remains sceptical, and asks, Ã¢â¬Å"Where is God? What is God? Ã¢â¬ In the same conversation, Jane questions the existence of heaven and the ability of people to enter it. Using contemporary standards, these questions might be considered by some to be normal and even healthy. However, in the context of the society during the time when the novel was first published, such comments would have been considered as blasphemous and grossly immoral. Critics who believed that the novel was in fact an autobiography were correct. Although the life of the character Jane Eyre is not identical to that of the author Charlotte Bronte, there are obvious parallels. For example, while attending Lowood School, one of JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s closest friends dies of consumption. Similarly, while attending school at Cowan Bridge, JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s sisters died of the same illness. This coincidence drew comparisons between the fictional headmaster of Lowood whom Jane denounces as insincere and deceitful, and CharlotteÃ¢â¬â¢s own former headmaster who ran Cowan Bridge. Another parallel can be drawn between the character of John Reed and CharlotteÃ¢â¬â¢s brother Branwell, because both men suffered from alcoholism. Perhaps the most obvious similarity between the novel and the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s life is the fact that both Jane and Charlotte were governesses. In accepting Jane Eyre as the true adventures of its heroine and by branding the novel as anti-Christian, early critics were correct. Due to similarities in the personal life of Charlotte Bronte and the experiences of Jane Eyre, it can be inferred that the novel is an autobiography. Based on the standards of society during the time it was first published, the rebellious tone and the manner in which the novel questioned respected social institutions, the novel can be considered as anti-Christian.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Castles Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In medieval times, castles served as the home and fortress of a monarch or noble. The earliest castles were built from earth and wood. By the 12th century, most castles were built from stone. The stones came from local mines or quarries if possible, but sometimes they had to be carried long distances by water or on ox wagons. The roofs of castles were covered with slates, clay tiles, or wooden shingles. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Castles were built on steep hill sides or at the top of rocky cliffs. This was for protection from attackers. It made it harder for them to reach the castle. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Castles also had additional purposes. They sometimes served as barracks, prisons, storehouses, armories, treasure houses, and the center for local government. Castles sometimes had brewhouses, a laundry a huge bakers oven, workshops, dovecotes, and stables (MacDonald, p.12) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Castle walls surrounded the entire castle and were usually several meters thick. They usually had 3 layers: a rough stone inner shell, a thick, solid filling of flint and rubble, and an outer layer of stone called ashlar. (MacDonald, p.8) There was usually a walkway along the top of the walls so guards could keep watch. Some castle walls had spaces at the top called embrassures, which allowed archers to shoot with the protection of the wall. These openings also permitted stones or boiling water to be thrown down on the enem...
Thursday, October 24, 2019
To experience passionate feelings for the first time is invigorating, maybe on the grounds that it increases to a startling level of self-change. We're all impacted by our loved ones, however a few of us all the more so. Evident in the novel, The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, there are some people in the world who have extreme attachment and stress-related anxiety with being left alone, also known as Oscar in the story, ask themself of their own happiness. When the author, Junot Diaz, writes about self-growth throughout the novel, he explained that sometimes self-development can force you towards unfortunate propensities, making you more on edge, and even confused. In entering a relationship, there's a possibility that you might turn into someone you might not wish to become; which often causes individuals to make illogical decisions that configures their lives, in this case, Oscar being the individual making irrational decisions. Oscar had girlfriends as early as the age of seven, he was dating two girls from his school both Maritza Chacon and Olga Polanca at the same time. In spite of the three way relationship between the young lovers being an actual thing, it only lasted for a week. One day after school, Maritza wanted to face reality and confronted Oscar saying, Ã¢â¬Å"It's either her or me!Ã¢â¬ (Page14,Chapter1), Oscar being the player that he was with his Dominican Republic blood at age seven, wanted to share, having the best of both worlds, but Maritza wasn't accepting any of Oscar's nonsense. Maritza was different from the other girls Oscar had interacted with. She was beautiful and easy going with the guys, while the other girlfriend, Olga was unattractive and quiet. So it was pretty easy for Oscar to choose who to be with, Maritza. Only to be dumped not even a week after Oscar had dumped Olga! Oscar was doleful. So heartbroken to the fact that, he did not interact with another girl for years. After the whole situation of being dumped by Maritza, over the next couple of years Oscar became depressed, leaning towards food for comfort, in the end leading him to obesity, and when he got into the stage of early adolescence no one could really call him that cute little Dominican Republic boy anymore. Oscar got uncomfortable with his overweight body and no longer could go anywhere near girls, because they always Ã¢â¬Å"shrieked and called him gordo asqueroso.Ã¢â¬ (Page17,Chapter1). However, Oscar had become so desperate that if a girl talked to him for even a split second, he would fall in love with her. He Ã¢â¬Å"became a social introvertÃ¢â¬ (Page22,Chapter1), not having many friends throughout high school. Ã¢â¬Å"[Oscar's] affection-that gravitational mass of love, fear, longing, desire, and lust that he directed at any and every girl in the vicinity without regard to looks, age, or availability-broke his heart each and every day.Ã¢â¬ (Page23,Chapter1). As a result, he became very unwoeful with his life, abusing himself not only mentally but physically by lowering his self-esteem and self-confidence. As it came towards Oscar's Senior Year, Ã¢â¬Å"Oscar fell in love with a girl in his SAT prep class.Ã¢â¬ (Page33,Chapter1), Ana. Ana was a conversationalist, and in Oscar's perspective Ã¢â¬Å"[Ana] had beautiful Carribean-girl eyesÃ¢â¬ (Page34,Chapter1). She was a bit strange compared to the other girls, yet good-looking, making Oscar fall head over heels in love with her. Until one day she talked about her ex-boyfriend, Manny. Although things were going well between Ana and Oscar, the thought of Ana talking about Manny kept roaming in the back of his mind, pestering him.- Ã¢â¬Å"My parents loved Manny. My mom used to cook dinner for him all the time.Ã¢â¬ (Page35,Chapter1) Oscar liked Ana, but it didn't seem that Ana had the same feelings. Poor Oscar. When Ana had told Oscar that she and Manny were dating again, his heart got broken once more. Although this isn't the last time Oscar gets his heart broken, it sure is a starting point to deep, dark thoughts. As we read about Oscar's life in the novel, we can identify that due to the strong impression from Oscar's surroundings, he believed that a person needed to be loved, naturally he received stress from not succeeding, and in the end lost touch with reality. With peer pressure of having been told to lose his virginity more than several times, he became desperate, wanting to prove to himself that he too, can get a girl and be happy with life. However, due to the fact that Oscar couldn't really succeed in that area of expertise, it led him to numerous accounts of attempted suicide and eventually death.