Thursday, December 26, 2019

Drinking Culture and American Social Norms - 1318 Words

SPEECH #3 – PERSUASIVE SPEECH Name: DANIEL C. DILIGENT Title: Lowering the Legal Drinking Age Specific Purpose: To argue in favor of lowering the minimum legal drinking age in the United States. Thesis Statement: I will discuss 1) the current legal drinking age, 2) the effect that this drinking age has upon American social norms, and 3) the potential benefits of a lower drinking age. I. INTRODUCTION A. Hook: Alcohol is ever-present in today’s American society. Television viewers are constantly bombarded with advertisements promoting its consumption. Social events rarely take place without their attendees drinking some alcoholic beverage or another. However, young people in America are told by society that they are not allowed to†¦show more content†¦Alcohol would no longer be perceived as a forbidden fruit III. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the current law setting the minimum drinking age at 21 has failed in its effort to keep America’s young people safe from the dangerous aspects of alcohol consumption. In addition to being ineffective, the law impinges upon the rights of individuals to partake in activities which are otherwise pervasive in today’s American social culture. Though those who are 18 years old are considered adults in nearly all facets of the law, including voting rights and the ability to join the military, they are still treated as minors when it comes to drinking. If an 18-year-old is old enough to make those important decisions, then he or she is certainly old enough to decide whether or not he or she is ready to consume alcohol. Because of the current laws, young men and women are compelled to furtively experiment with alcohol. Rather than beginning their drinking experiences under the supervision of responsible adults, the young people do so in secret, bec ause the laws and the culture they have created refuse to allow them to explore their natural curiosities. By lowering the drinking age, the U.S. can begin to raise more responsible drinkers, who will not be as prone to alcohol abuse or addiction as today’s Americans are. Thank you. IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Tway, Kelley. â€Å"The Benefits of the Drinking Age.† Mothers Against Drunk Driving. 2004. 2. Seaman, Barrett. Binge. Hoboken: John Wiley Show MoreRelatedVerbal Mediums And Music And Song Provide A Holistic Reflection Of The Culture Of A Given Community963 Words   |  4 Pagesreflection of the culture of a given community. Songs are products and practices that are able to shed light on the philosophical, political, socio-cultural norms, and perspectives of a particular society.1 Thus, these products shape the worldview of a cultural group. Within patriarchal subcultures, such as fraternities, song lyrics reflect socially constructed dominant masculinities that members are encouraged to adopt and engage in. From Rugby Road to Vinegar Hill, a drinking song made prominentRead MoreBinge Drinking in the College Culture: Identifying Causes, Consequences, Potential Treatment Approaches1775 Words   |  7 PagesBinge drinking has been synonymous with typi cal young adult college culture for decades. Fillmore and Jude (2011) reported that binge drinking is often defined as someone drinking four to five drinks during one episode of drinking, or consuming enough alcohol for a person to have a blood alcohol concentration of .08% or higher. In this paper, I will define college culture as an exclusive group, with differing needs and attitudes from society, provide statistics and college cultural practices thatRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcoholism On The World Health Organization1447 Words   |  6 Pagescapita per year which puts us at quite at a high level by world standards, even more than the Britons (11.6 litres) and the Americans (9.2 litres) respectively. Australians take pride in its drinking culture reputation and accept it as a social norm; not acknowledging the harm it could cause. As opposed to the using of illegal drugs directly governed by law to maintain social order, alcoholism is still considered more of a personal behaviour problem, and therefore, is only considered as a personalRead MoreAlcohol And Its Effects On Psychological And Physical Levels1212 Words   |  5 PagesAlcohol is integrated into every part of American society, from the media to basic social interaction. Alcohol is so ingrained into culture that it has become an indication of status, a declaration of membership, a gender-based choice, and a rite of passage (SIRC, 2014). Adolescents growing up in an environment in which alcohol is so prevalent are bound to experiment, and this has become an expectation. However, drinking impacts minors negatively on psychological and physical levels, and early useRead MoreDrinking Age Essay677 Words   |  3 PagesDrinki ng Age When teen-agers turn 18, they are told that they are adults and are sent into the world. They go to college, get a job, marry or join the military. They do grown-up things like vote, pay taxes and become parents. But they cant go to the pub for a beer because when it comes to liquor, they are still just kids. Wheres the fairness in the 21-and-older drinking law? First, it is necessary to question this law. Why is 21 the magical age that makes one intelligent and matureRead More Alcohol and its effects Essay1479 Words   |  6 Pages Alcohol is a large part of American culture. All over the United States drinking is not only acceptable but a social norm from teenagers to adults. This is not only the case in the U.S., but all over the world, where some drinking ages are 18 and 19 years of age. In America specifically, alcohol has been around for centuries and is a large part of many social gatherings. Although this is the case now, in the early 1900’s during the prohibition period, all alcohol was banned and deemed illegal toRead MoreLowering The Drinking Age Of The Age981 Words   |  4 PagesHowever, there are those who remain persistent in their requests to drop the drinking age to a slightly lower option. Opposition to the legal drinking age of twenty-one has shown to have some support from mostly younger groups of people, witho ut much validation as to why a lowered drinking age would be beneficial to our country as a whole. Yet, there are still some interesting arguments for those in favor of dropping the age at which it is legal to drink to eighteen. Consider how many young adultsRead MoreThe Drinking Age Should Remain 18 in Australia1563 Words   |  7 PagesThe Drinking Age Should Remain 18 Years Old in Australia The Drinking Age Should Remain 18 Years Old in Australia These days there are a number of social issues in the community, such as drug abuse, teenage pregnancy and alcohol abuse. Alcohol abuse is rampant in today’s society, Australian Drug Foundation states that, â€Å"Alcohol is the most widely used psychoactive, or mood-changing, recreational drug in Australia.†(Healey, 2002, p. 11). Underage drinking and binge drinking are some of the problemsRead MoreDakota Access Pipeline Protest Movement1743 Words   |  7 PagesAccess Pipeline Protest Movement Introduction Civil societies are voluntary social institutions and organizations that are separate from the government and the market where a community of citizens are able to come together and pursue their shared common interest. They are beneficial to the community as well as the broader society as civil societies ultimately promote progressive policies, nurture positive social norms that encourage stability, and advocates accountability and checks against stateRead More The Harms of Underage Alcohol Consumption Essay examples826 Words   |  4 Pagesfrequently as common at business lunches as they are at college frat parties. Underage drinking is a huge problem which everyone must face. Under age drinking not only has devastating effects on those who drink but also on our society. ?Young people illegally consume almost 3.6 billion drinks annually which is 10 million drinks each day.? ( Underage drinking has serious social, health and economic consequences. It is a major factor in crime, violence, mental-health

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

A Comparison Of The Challenger And Columbia Explosions

Exploring NASA: A Comparison of the Challenger and Columbia Explosions Jennifer Waldroup HIS 247 November 17,2014 It holds true that government organizations gradually decline; the enthusiasm is replaced with bureaucracy, employees are resistant to change and overall performance is decreased. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is no exception to this. NASA is an example of bureaucracy having a detrimental effect on an organization. The lines of communication became skewed and were often broken while the organization was locked in an internal battle over who exactly was in charge. While there were heads of each department and heads of each branch, critical information often slipped through the cracks. It was this breakdown in communication and the failure to address known issues that was the direct cause for both the Challenger and Columbia explosions. The explosions, though separated by seventeen years, were incredibly similar. Concerns had been brought to the table and similarly dismissed as â€Å"acceptable risk.† This acceptable risk proved fatal for t he crews of both space shuttles. Bureaucracy and financial expediency led to reduced federal funding, general distrust from the public, and growing disinterest. The organization that sent men to the moon is vastly different than the organization in charge today. NASA’s beginnings were less clouded in red tape and bureaucratic policies. Ideas wereShow MoreRelatedProject Managment Case Studies214937 Words   |  860 Pages377 10 CONTROLLING PROJECTS 381 The Two-Boss Problem 383 The Bathtub Period 385 Ford Motor Co.: Electrical/Electronic Systems Engineering 388 viii 11 PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT 401 CONTENTS The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster 403 The Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster 453 Packer Telecom 460 Luxor Technologies 462 Altex Corporation 466 Acme Corporation 470 12 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT 473 Facilities Scheduling at Mayer Manufacturing 475 Scheduling the Safety Lab 478 Telestar InternationalRead MoreStrategic Marketing Management337596 Words   |  1351 Pagesand methods An illustration of segmental analysis An alternative approach to segmental analysis Customer profitability analysis Marketing experimentation The nature of productivity The use of ratios Analysing ratios and trends Ratios and interfirm comparison vi CONTENTS 3.13 3.14 A strategic approach Summary 112 116 117 119 119 120 128 136 139 149 153 159 165 167 169 169 170 174 182 188 192 202 214 215 221 223 223 230 236 241 246 248 250 251 255 261 4 Market and environmental analysisRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pages........................................................................... 251 False Dilemma Fallacy....................................................................................................................... 253 Fallacy of Faulty Comparison .......................................................................................................... 256 Fallacious Appeal to Authority .....................................................................................................Read MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagesthan half are new to this edition) †¢ Photos/captions (more than half are new to this edition) New feature: glOBalization!, which features organizational behavior in an international context. Improved integration of global implications: With the explosion of international research, global OB research is now woven into each chapter, rather than in a stand-alone section at the end of the chapter. Revision to Summary and Implications for Managers section, with more focus on practical ways to apply theRead MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 Pagesimprovement involving entirely better ways of working. It recognizes that what one measures effectively, one is most like ly to lead and manage effectively. Intel’s emphasis on new work flow forms of development and operation triggered fundamental explosions in the way information technology is successfully created and produced. Toyota’s emphasis on management processes that solve small problems quickly—fully as much as they solve large ones—has provided it with an enormous competitive advantage in

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Health Education in

Question: Discuss about the Health Education in Schools. Answer: Heath education at early stage of life is important as it helps to develop the children by making them immune and physically strong, mentally alert, emotionally strong and socially aware to learn every aspect of health. Jason et al. (2002) described the importance of health promotional campaigns in schools to change behavior and cease substance abuse. Authors Dreyhaupt et al. (2012) also demonstrated that physical education or promotion of mental health is important for the kids as well as younger population, in developed and developing countries. Obesity and imbalanced dietary habit are the primary concern of the healthcare society nowadays as maximum of the younger generation throughout the globe is suffering from disorders like obesity and blood pressure. Hence Dreyhaupt et al. (2012) investigated the helath promotional plan "Komm mit in das gesunde Boot - Grundschule" of Germany, which is denoted as the biggest health promotional program in Germany. The focus of the study was to investigate the beneficial effects of this campaign on schoolchildren. The researchers found that the program was able to meet its aim without harming the curriculum of those children as it involved schoolteachers by proving them easy guidelines and lessons. This program included 427 primary school kids and 890 teachers in Germany in the academic years 2009/10 and 2010/11, thereby able to receive huge success. This study also indicated to the point that parents having low socio-economic access are not being able to teach their children safety and h ealthy behavior. Therefore, the early education in schools regarding health and hygiene helps to incorporate those values within their behavior and character, making them a better human in later stage of life (Barry et al. 2013). References Barry, M.M., Clarke, A.M., Jenkins, R. and Patel, V., 2013. A systematic review of the effectiveness of mental health promotion interventions for young people in low and middle income countries.BMC public health,13(1), p.835. Dreyhaupt, J., Koch, B., Wirt, T., Schreiber, A., Brandstetter, S., Kesztys, D., Wartha, O., Kobel, S., Kettner, S., Prokopchuk, D. and Hundsdrfer, V., 2012. Evaluation of a health promotion program in children: Study protocol and design of the cluster-randomized Baden-Wuerttemberg primary school study [DRKS-ID: DRKS00000494].BMC Public Health,12(1), p.157. Jason, L.A., Curie, C.J., Townsend, S.M., Pokorny, S.B., Katz, R.B. and Sherk, J.L., 2002. Health promotion interventions.Child family behavior therapy,24(1-2), pp.67-82.

Monday, December 2, 2019

The Way We Speak Determines How We Think free essay sample

Critically evaluate this statement, drawing on the key theories and research that describe the relationship between language and thought. Language has traditionally been characterized by Philosophers as a cognitive tool used to freely externalize ones thoughts (Green, 2010 as cited in Kaye, 2010). The relationship between language, thought, culture and reality has occupied the minds of many for centuries. Early theorists argued that language and thought were two separate systems which â€Å"enter into an array of interconnected cognitive structures† (Chomsky, 1983). Extreme nativists and constructivists are key proponents of innateness and argued that knowledge and thought hold a significant innate property which exists prior to the development of language acquisition and is dependent on thought for its development. (Fodor, 1975 cited in Green, 2010) In recent years, contrasting with this position, researchers have provided empirical evidence to support a causal relationship between both language and thought which indicates how we speak does shape how we think but also how we think can influence how we speak. We will write a custom essay sample on The Way We Speak Determines How We Think or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Boroditsky, 2010) The emergence of this new evidence elaborates on earlier ideas associated with the Whorfian hypothesis (Whorf, 1956 cited in Green, 2010) and focuses on an alternative approach, linguistic determinism. This essay will explore the different theoretical approaches and provide evidence which demonstrates how no one theory has provided conclusive empirical evidence that supports how we speak determines how we think. Preliminary studies on language and thought have resulted in contributory and conflicting information which looks at the definitions and functions of language and thought, the interactions between both and the origins. Language and thought have been considered to be some of the key components which define human nature and what it means to be human. Aitchison (2007) highlighted some of the key features which define our uniqueness as humans but also certain characteristics we share with our animal relatives. Semanticity is one feature which separates us from other species. Humans use words to communicate and to represent objects and actions. In contrast animals use sounds to communicate information about a situation. For example blackbirds give a recognizable call for danger but it does not inform others of the type of danger present. Another feature which separates us from animals is creativity. Humans have the ability to understand and produce an infinite number of novel grammatical expressions with little evidence to demonstrate this skill in animals. These differences between species demonstrate the difference between language and communication and have led to other questions about how and why language acquisition was developed (Aitchison, 2007, cited in Green, 2010). Furthermore like any other psychological dichotomy, psychologists and philosophers have questioned whether language shapes our thoughts and ideas or whether our thoughts are merely represented through what we say. One approach which argues against the notion of language influencing thought is the constructivist position. According to this approach, language is seen as an emergent property that unfolds as a result of cognitive development therefore suggesting that language may not determine how we think (Piaget, 1923, cited in Green, 2010). Evidence from Piaget’s (1923) epistemological studies demonstrates how thinking and other cognitive abilities such as symbolic play, mental imagery all exist in children before language development. However one major criticism of this theory suggests that if this idea is to be true, then children with visual or auditory impairment are likely to be handicapped in language due to insufficient sensory input. However research has indicated no difference between the rate and time which impaired children obtain their earliest words compared with seeing children. Bigelow, 1987; Nelson, 1973) Although this evidence rejects Piaget’s (1923) theory, considerations need to be applied for parents of visually impaired children compensating for the impairment. Further issues with Piaget’s (1923) theory suggests that if certain levels of cognitive development are required to assist language ability, then his notion of object permanence should precede the acquisition of concepts and objects Xu (2002) research found opposite results to Piaget’s (1923) ideas which demonstrate how a child as early as 9 months old was capable of distinguishing between two objects. Because of this conflicting information, it is difficult to assign a causal relationship between language and thought within this framework (Xu, 2002, cited in Green, 2010). In addition, the extreme nativist approach led by Fodor (1983), postulates that all concepts are innate and we possess language syntax of thought. His key ideas are centered on the content of concepts and the structure of propositions. Fodor (1983) proposed that some cognitive systems (language) are modular and interface with non-modular central systems such as memory and thinking. One of the main aspects of interest in Fodor’s (1983) framework is the acquisition of concepts. Unlike empiricists who argue that children proceed through a process of inductive generalization to understand a new concept, Fodor (1983) suggests that this is not the case and that concepts are innately pre-programmed and not learnt (Russell, 2004 cited in Green, 2010) He describes vocabulary acquisition as attaching names to pre-existing categories and concepts which are broken down into components until the end point is reached. He also explains how new or complex concepts are developed (. i. e. ipad) by decomposition into their basic elemental components. From this, it would suggest that language develops from already pre-existing concepts or thoughts which would show the directional flow of influence to come from thought rather than speech. Chomsky (2006) is also a staunch proponent for the nativist approach and offers complimentary ideas to Fodor’s (1983) theory on innateness. He argued that the syntax of language is innate and that a universal grammar underpins language. The theory suggested that linguistic ability manifests itself without being taught, and that there are properties that all natural  human languages share (Chomsky, 2006). Exploration of this hypothesis focused on word order, structure and parameters. Universally the random order of words differs amongst cultures. For example in English we use subject-verb-object language compared with those in Japanese who use Subject-Object-Verb. Chomsky (2006) argued that although the mental grammar differs from language to language, the process by which certain sentences are perceived as correct while others are not is universal and independent of meaning. He also argued that language acquisition is obtained through an innate language acquisition device. His theory later evolved into principles and parameters theory and looked at the abstract rules applied when learning a language. One of the key tenets of Chomsky’s (2006) theory is that language is independent of cognition and does not influence how we think. Criticisms of his theory are highlighted as complete disregard for meaning and the social aspects or environment at which a child first acquires its words. Other critiques look at evidence produced by children with a hearing impairment. Questions surround what kind of parameters they would apply when using sign language. If Chomsky’s (2006) theory is to be correct then, it does not explain how children who learn two languages at once can apply parameter settings (Messer, 2000 cited in Green, 2010). Contrasting with the nativist approach, linguistic determinism argued in support for the notion that language influences or even determines how we speak. These ideas were first presented in the early 1930’s by Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf, who studied how languages vary and proposed ways that speakers of different tongues may think differently. Due to lack of empirical evidence at the time, their ideas of determinism (Whorfian hypothesis) were rejected but later reinstated with a weaker, less controversial notion of linguistic relativism, suggesting how language influences thought rather than determines it. Green, 2010) Firstly many of the early studies supporting Whorf’s hypothesis derived from studies of colour perception and naming. Brown and Lenneberg, (1954) found cross-cultural differences in the speed of colour naming and recognition, related to colour terms in different languages, though the study found correlations rather than a causal relationship. Additionally later research by Roberson et al, (2000) in the Berinmo people of Papua New Guinea showed findings which do support the Whorfian hypothesis and showed evidence for an effect of language on colour perception (Green, 2010, p. 66-372). Secondly more recent experiments carried out by Boroditsky, Winawer, Withoff, Frank and Wu (2007) investigated whether linguistic differences led to differences in colour discrimination between Russian and English speakers. Unlike English speakers, Russian speakers divide the colour terms on the spectrum differently. For example Russian speakers make a distinct differentiation between lighter blues and darker blues whereas English speakers would categories all colours of blue under on label. The experiment measured colour discrimination performance using a basic perceptual task. The results showed that Russian speakers were faster to discriminate two colours if they were part of the different linguistic categories in Russian than if the two colours were from the same category. Further effects of language were seen with English speakers who did not show any category advantage under any condition hence demonstrating how categories in language can affect performance of colour discrimination or how we speak can influence how we think. Thirdly research has also investigated spatial cognition and non-linguistic tasks and has shown how different cultures spatialize time depending on the available spatial representations (Green, 2010, p. 368). For example Dutch speakers use right and left in relation to object-centered frames of reference compared with the Mayan people of South America who use the compass points (North,South,East,West) for both geographic and object-centered frames of reference. Brown and Levinson (1993) conducted a study to investigate if these different frames of reference influenced the encoding of spatial relationships. The results showed that Dutch and Tzeltal (Mayan) speakers showed differences in reconstruction of a spatial array of objects, depending on encoding in their language which provides support for the Whorfian hypothesis and also shows how we speak can influence how we think. One critique of this experiment is the location of the task was not considered. Li and Gleitman (2002) argued that changing the environment in which spatial tasks occur can change the frame of reference used. The results from their study did demonstrate that within a different environment, participants chose to use a relative frame of reference hence highlighting the importance or significance of environmental factors in determining the frame used. Finally Boroditsky, (2001) also looked at the concept of time and whether aspects of language and culture influence how we think about this domain. Her study investigated how Mandarin and English speakers represent time and whether temporal metaphors differ between the two groups. English and Mandarin speakers both use horizontal (front/back) spatial terms to talk about time but differ in the use of vertical (up/down) spatial terms which are used by Mandarin speakers but not English speakers. Participants from both groups were asked to verify statements in English about temporal relationships from a scene containing objects that were arranged either along the vertical or horizontal dimension. The results showed that both groups organize time from left to right which is consistent with their writing direction but also that Mandarin speaker’s show evidence of vertical representation of time with earlier events represented further up after vertical priming and no evidence for this in English speakers. The results of this study provide evidence for cross-cultural differences in temporal reasoning and also support for language influencing thought. However compelling this evidence is, these findings have not been replicated in later studies. To conclude, it is clear that the above recent evidence provides support that demonstrates a transactional or causal relationship between both thought and language however due to the lack of successful replication of these results and the requirement for further investigation, once cannot conclude the notion of linguistic determinism. The way we speak does not determine how we think, but is more influential in shaping some aspects and in both directions. One must also consider that certain aspects of this cognitive process are indeed innate, that we are designed with a pre-disposition to develop language as a means of communication. It is also possible that both innateness and linguistic determinism explain different components of the same process, depending on the situation and context we find ourselves in. As the field of cognitive psychology progresses and further evidence is provided we may be able to settle on one explanation or another.