Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Social Work Theories Older Adults

Social Work Theories Older Adults 1. Introduction This essay concerns the application of social work theory and practice with adults within the context of a specific legislative framework. The assignment specifically takes up different aspects of social work theory and practice that concern the carers of old and disabled individuals. It makes specific use of the case study on Betty, her daughter Elizabeth, and other members of Elizabeths family. The case study is provided in the appendix to this essay. It is considered as read and is thus not described in the body of this essay. The assignment deals with the role of carers in the UK social work infrastructure and their needs and rights. It also takes up the importance of interprofessional participation and partnership between social and health care professionals and carers in delivery of social and health care, including the management of risk. 2. Identification of Issue This assignment focuses on the responsibilities, difficulties, and needs of Elizabeth, the 49 year old daughter of Betty, who is 74 and has been living with Elizabeth and her family for the last 2 years. Elizabeth, who is white, is married to Charles (48), who is black and of African-Caribbean origin. They have two children, Mathew (22) and Elisa (19), who live with them. Betty suffered from a stroke two months ago and is recovering in hospital. She has developed poor left side mobility on account of the episode and will require a wheel chair to move about. She has been medically assessed as ready to return home, where Elizabeth is expected to care for her. The situation and the caring relationship, whilst transparent and logical, has become complicated because of Charless redundancy from employment and his strained relationship with Mathew, who is yet to start earning. The domestic environment could become disturbed because of the possibility of Charles resuming his old drinking habits, the tendency of Mathew to engage in substance abuse and his stealing from his grandmother to fund his drug purchases and the possibility of Elisas moving out to live with her boyfriend. An application of Eriksons theory of human development reveals that Betty is now firmly entrenched in her late adulthood, whereas Elizabeth is in her middle adulthood. Betty, if she is properly cared for, will find it easy to accept her life stage and prepare for her final years with complacency. For Elizabeth, these are years of activity and being in charge. Taking care of Betty will add meaning to her life, reduce stagnation, and establish a caring and stable home environment. Elizabeth is obviously in a complex and difficult situation and whilst she must care for her ailing mother, she also has responsibilities towards her husband and children. Social work policies in the UK detail the ways through which social and medical care should be provided to adults in need (Oliver Decoster, 2006, p 243). Specific policies exist for providing medical and social support to elderly people with mental and physical disabilities. Such services are provided through the aegis of social work practitioners, mental health professionals, medical professionals and medical workers. These diverse professionals are expected to work in partnership for the delivery of comprehensive social and medical care to the old and disabled (Oliver Decoster, 2006, p 243). With the majority of such service users being expected to be cared for in the community, in their homes and in the midst of their near relatives, carers form an extremely important component of the social work delivery proc ess (Stalker, 2003, p 67). Elizabeth, in her role as the primary care for Betty forms the pivot for delivery of social and health care services. This assignment delves into the social work infrastructure and policies in the UK that are available for carers and makes particular use of relevant frameworks including the Single Assessment Process and National Service Framework for Older People. The essay also discusses relevant sociological and psychological theories for human development and behaviour and examines the ways in which inter-professional practice and partnership of professionals with carers can help in improvement of social work delivery. 3. Social and Medical Care for Adults and Old People The official approach for providing social and medical care for older people was revamped and improved significantly after the publication of the White Paper on Modernising Social Services in 1998 and the adoption of a national agenda for improvement of care and services (Baker, 2004, p 12). The National Service for Older People (NSF-OP), which was adopted in 2001set standards for the promotion of better services and greater integration of health and social care services for people (Baker, 2004, p 12). The NSF-OP is developed around 8 standards, namely (a) age discrimination, (b) person centred care, (c) intermediate care, (d) general hospital care, (e) stroke, (f) falls, (g) mental health and (h) health promotion. The NSF for older people very importantly introduced the concept of person centred care, which aimed to ensure that older people were treated as individuals in their own right and received care packages that satisfied their individual needs, irrespective of boundaries between health and social services (Baker, 2004, p 12). These standards aimed to ensure the integration of health care and social work services for older people and ca;;ed upon health and social care workers to participate and collaborate with each other to provide holistic and rounded services to people in need (Baker, 2004, p 12). The person centred approach for provisioning of social and health care is an important outcome of the gradual development and acceptance of the social model of disability (Moulin, 2002, p 43). The still dominant medical model of disability assumes that disabilities result from the physical or mental limitations of individual persons and are largely unrelated to their social or geographical surroundings. It places the origin of a problem with a person and states that solutions can be found by focusing on the individual, rather than on his or her surroundings (Moulin, 2002, p 43). Whilst the medical model has for centuries dominated human approaches towards disabled people, recent decades have seen the emergence and the progressive acceptance of the social model, which views disability to be the consequence of social and environmental barriers that restrict people with disabilities from participating in society (Moulin, 2002, p 47). The person centred approach is routed in the social model and aims to empower people with disabilities by allowing them to participate and agree to the medical and social care plans that are made for them (Moulin, 2002, p 47). Such empowerment provides service users with significant independence to participate in their rehabilitation and treatment process and allows care plans to focus on rehabilitation and prevention, rather than on symptomatic treatment (Moulin, 2002, p 47). The single assessment procedure was introduced in the SAF- OP, specifically to further the standard concerning person centred care (Baker, 2004, p 14). The SAP facilitates a single assessment for the medical and social needs of individuals and calls upon respective agencies to work together for provisioning of appropriate and holistic care to individuals in need (Baker, 2004, p 14). The SAF-OP is particularly relevant for Betty, because it provides a framework for providing of holistic social and medical services to individuals who have experienced strokes. 4. The Role of Carers Whilst Bettys medical condition and social needs are certainly addressed through policies like the SAP, the SAF-OP, the progressively greater use of the social model, the person centred approach, the existing social health care infrastructure, the efforts of the individual carer, in this case her daughter Elizabeth, will play a critical role in the delivery of such care. The progressive elimination of hospitalisation and institutionalisation for people with physical and mental ailments and the replacement of such approaches and methods with community centred care commenced in the 1960s and progressively increased over the years through appropriate policy modifications. It is now widely accepted that people with disabilities live far more enriched, satisfied and productive lives amongst their families, friends and communities than in specialised institutions. Betty, after her recuperation from her stroke, is expected to come back into the community, live with her close relatives and family members, and be cared for by people who care for her. Such community care, whilst extremely desirable as an alternative to institutionalisation, however calls for the services of specific carers for individuals, who cannot manage their own activities, and thus need to be looked after by other people (Office for National Statics, 2006, p 1-2). Such carers, in the overwhelming majority of cases, constitute of family members, spouses, siblings, parents or even children (Office for National Statics, 2006, p 1-2) Betty, after her stroke, has reduced left side mobility and will need a wheel chair for her personal movement. Whilst she may, in all probability, be able to look after her own needs to some extent, it is probable that she will certainly need the care of another person. Elizabeth, her daughter and the person with whom she is living at present, is expected to fulfil the role of her carer. Carers occupy a unique role in the British social care infrastructure. Practically 11% of the population, i.e. approximately 6 million people, provide unpaid care in the UK to individuals in need. Whilst practically half of these carers fall in the age group between 45 and 64, many of them are very young as well as quite old. The majority of people who receive care live either in residential premises (Office for National Statics, 2006, p 1-2). Caring for an elderly person, as Elizabeth will be required to do, calls for significant amounts of sensitivity and commitment. Most people involved in care for older people look after parents or relatives who were previously used to looking after them (Weinstein, et al, 2003, p 114). Elderly people often wish to remain self reliant and make their own decisions as long as possible. Such changes in family relationships can often be complex and lead to situations of conflict if they are not handled with adequate care and thought (Weinstein, et al, 2003, p 115). Whilst caring for older people has to be handled with great sensitivity to avoid upsetting the people who are being cared for, it also calls for a great deal of hard work, effort, and self sacrifice on the part of carers (Williams Robinson, 2000, p 18). Carers often have to adjust their responsibilities towards their employers, if they are employed, and to their other family members who may need their emotional and physical support, in order to look after the individuals whose care has been entrusted to them (Williams Robinson, 2000, p 18). With carers playing critical roles in supporting and providing essential services to disabled and ailing elderly people, it is essential for them to work in close coordination and participation with responsible medical, health and social care professionals in order to facilitate the provisioning of holistic medical, social, physical and emotional support to their elderly wards (Stalker, 2003, p 81). Such partnership helps in better assessment of risks that are faced by persons in care and formulation of appropriate care and intervention plans. Social and medical care plans thus need to be carefully formulated by the concerned social workers after appropriate assessment with the use of person centred approaches and the involvement and agreement of the service user and the carer (Stalker, 2003, p 81). Elizabeth, as has been stated before is experiencing difficult domestic conditions at home because of the unemployment of her husband. Whilst her husband Charles did not previously have any objection to Bettys staying with them, his attitude might now change because of her illness as well as straitened domestic circumstances. He has a history of alcohol misuse and domestic abuse and his employment redundancy, as well as annoyance with Matthews unemployment, drug abuse and household thievery may upset him enough to relapse into his old ways. Elizabeth could in the normal course of events expect assistance from her two children in discharging her caring and household duties. This however looks improbable because of Elisas plans to shift in with her boyfriend and Matthews disturbed emotional state and surreptitious misuse of drugs. 5. Assessment of Needs of Carers Carers, like Elizabeth, perform vital and pivotal roles in the delivery of social care to individuals under their care, who are otherwise unable to manage, at home, without some form of support because of issues like disability, mental health needs, and illness or learning difficulties. Such carers have their own problems and needs that can easily be overlooked by the people around them. Elizabeths problems, as explained in the previous section, whilst not apparent are complex and real. The previous New Labour government recognised these needs, and introduced significant legislation for the protection of the rights of carers, through the enactment of the Carers and Disabled Children Act, 2000, and the Carers (Equal Opportunities) Act, 2004. The Carers and Disabled Children Act provides carers with the rights for separate assessments of their needs, if they provide or intend to provide regular and substantial care to others (Department of Human Services, 2003, p 18). The person under care is usually assessed for his or her needs under the provisions of the 1990 NHS and Community Care Act (Department of Human Services, 2003, p 18). This is the best way of helping, both the carer and the person in care. The services provided to people who are in care often helps to support carers through the provisioning of some of the care that is being given by carers. The Carers (Equal Opportunities) Act aims to assure that carers can avail of opportunities that others often take for granted (Department of Human Services, 2003, p 18). Assessments of needs of carers take into account the need of carers to continue with their work, return to work and excess education as well as training or leisure activities (Department of Human Services, 2003, p 19). The provisions of UK law state that carers are entitled to assessment, when they provide, or intend to provide, regular and substantial care to individuals in need, and the person being cared for, can access services from the Community Mental Health Team or the Department of Community Services (Department of Human Services, 2003, p 19). Such rights for assessment provide carers with (a) opportunities to reflect and discuss their own needs as carers, (b) share their caring experiences, (c) obtain recognition for their roles as carers, (d) obtain information and advice, (e) identify and discuss existing and potential difficulties, and (f) create contingency plans for circumstances that may not make it possible for them to continue in their caring roles (Stalker, 2003, p 83). Assessments are made to investigate the ways in which social and health care professionals and the existing infrastructure can help people in their caring roles by maintaining their health and wellbeing (Stalker, 2003, p 85). Such assessments concern issues like different aspects of individual caring roles, availability of breaks from caring, health issues of carers, maintenance of relationships with the person being cared for and others in the family, caring for home, accommodation, finances, work, education and training, support, emergencies, alternative arrangements and the future. As is evident, existing policies aim to make the assessment of carers as holistic as possible (Stalker, 2003, p 87). Such assessments take up a whole range of issues like the time being taken for caring, understanding the condition of the person being cared for, and difficulties in providing suitable care (Stalker, 2003, p 88). Health, relationships, finances, and work, are very important components of the assessment process, and social and health care professionals aim to assess whether carers can be helped in their relationships with people important to them and in their health, their finances and their leisure activity (D epartment of Human Services, 2003, p 19). Assessments for carers lead to personal discussions with them on the help required by them and the preparation of care plans that try to accommodate the wishes and constraints of carers to the maximum extent (Department of Human Services, 2003, p 21). The Department of Community Services can, after such assessment, provide help to both the carers and to the people who are being cared for. The persons who are being cared for can be helped with direct payments in order to allow them to purchase their own care, practical or personal care at home, respite care, adaptations and home equipment, and day care services (Department of Human Services, 2003, p 21). Carers can be helped with support in the form of (a) direct payments to help them to buy the support they need, (b) substitute care in order to enable them to take breaks from caring, (c) assistance with specific tasks and equipment to help them in their caring efforts, (d) advice and support in their role as carers and (e) short brea ks (Department of Human Services, 2003, p 21). Elizabeth can ask for an assessment, discuss her various problems with the social worker and try to work out, not only the best available care plan for Betty, but the ways in which she can obtain help to perform her caring functions effectively, maintain her home, help her children, and continue a good relationship with her husband. Conclusions This essay takes up the analysis of the case study of Elizabeth, her mother Betty, and her immediate family, and uses Elizabeths particular circumstances, as a would be carer for her mother, for an examination of existing legislation, theory and practice in areas of social and health care for adults with disabilities and their carers. Social work policies, practice, and theory for carers, as well as the persons they care for have evolved significantly over the last decade. Whilst assessment policies and intervention tools for adults with ailments or disabilities have been streamlined significantly in order to account for their individual needs and to empower them with independence in choosing their care and treatment plans, the importance of carers in the delivery of social work in a community care environment has come to the forefront. Carers are acknowledged to be critically important in the delivery of care. Social and health workers are expected to work collaboratively and in partnership, with each other and with carers, for the planning and delivery of holistic care and health services that take care of the individual needs of service users. Carers are also entitled to assessment of their needs and various forms of assistance to make their caring duties more effective and less onerous. Whilst Elizabeths responsibilities towards her mother and her family members are undoubtedly onerous, the social and health care policies of the country provide significant facilities that can help in making her responsibilities easier and her life more enriching and fulfilling.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Essay --

World-renowned doctor Hans Selye once said, â€Å"It’s not stress that kills us, it is our reaction to it.† When parents and adults recall their college experience they often remember it as time where they had much freedom and few responsibilities. To students currently attending college, however, this time frame is often viewed as extremely stressful and exhausting. Stress is by far the most important health issue that college students face. Stress reactions have the ability to affect our overall health, our sleep patterns, and our school performance as it prevents us from meeting our everyday goals. It is extremely important for students to be able to identify and manage their stress levels and apply techniques that will enable them to reduce their stress. Stress not only plays an important factor on your overall wellness, but it is the leading cause to weight gain and the so-called â€Å"Freshman 15.† Without parental supervision and time refrains, college students often like to take advantage of their freedom by consuming whatever foods they desire. Instead of opting for healthy choices most students would much rather run to the cafeteria and grab a quick slice of pizza, or stop at the local fast food joint rather than making a salad in their dorm room or blending up a smoothie. Not only do these fatty fast foods taste good, but also they are also extremely easy to obtain especially when students have short breaks in between classes. Unfortunately this so called â€Å"15-pound† is not only acquired from the food decision student’s make, but also from the amount of alcohol they consume on weekends. Like the iconic movie portrayals, college students often enjoy going out on both weeknights and weekends consuming an over abundance of alcoh... ...r students to be able to take a few hours or even a few minutes of their day to do things that they enjoy. Relaxation techniques are extremely valuable in terms of stress management as they make it possible for students to spend a few minutes in a relaxing state of mind. Some other de-stressors are exercising regularly, maintaining a healthy diet, reducing caffeine intake, and getting on a normal sleep schedule. Most college students often lack time management skills, and are prone to procrastinating. It is beneficial to find a balance by setting realistic everyday goals and to keep your life and health in check in order and to manage one’s stress. College is supposed to be the best years of your life, not the most stressful years of your life. Therefore it is important to recognize how to maintain a healthy balance and how to cope and deal with everyday stress.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

A Book Report on Nickel and Dimed Essay

This research paper is on the book named Nickel and Dimed, a non fiction best seller penned by Barbara Ehrenreich. It is the story of an essay writer who goes undercover on advice of Harper’s editor Lewis Lapham as a low wage worker to find out how non-skilled workers manage their day to day lives. She experiments in three states, namely Florida, Maine, and Minnesota, by finding a job and accommodation in each location, in an attempt to find out the life of low paid workers. She spends one month in each location working full time and living only off the amount of money she earns in low-wage jobs. The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether the author could both live off the money earned and have enough money at the end of the month to pay the next month’s rent or not. A Book Report on Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America and Criticisms It is said that America is a land where dreams come true everyday. It is absolutely true. Millions of people from all over the world come to America to be certain that they have found a land where finally they would have enough of everything. See more:  Manifest Destiny essay Barbara Ehrenreich not agrees with the above statement, especially, when it comes to low-paid and unskilled workers. Barbara Ehrenreich is an upper middle class woman, who is a writer with PhD in biology in her real life. On advice of Harper’s editor Lewis Lapham, she follows a journalistic approach to infiltrate the low paid workers to know the effects of welfare reform. She leaves her life as a writer with $1300 in her pocket to meet the unexpected expenses, her personal items and her car. Her first destination is Key West, Florida where she starts searching for a job and lodgings. She chooses this city as it is closer to her home. There she secures jobs at two restaurants as a waitress and flirting with one day act as a housekeeper and continues living. Her fear as an over-qualified worker takes toll and she feels herself like an under-qualified worker as days proceed. This goes on for two months instead of for months, when she finally accepts defeat, as she walks out in mid-shift. The jobs get physically demanding and Barbara is extremely exhausted, the main reason behind her quitting. The restaurant and the people’s names are not revealed by the author. After leaving Key West, she plans to start afresh with Portland, Maine. The choice of location is connected author’s Caucasian demographics which she presumes that she will get better with workers and is quite affordable. There she finds two jobs. The main one is that of housekeeping, the job which is in strict need. The other one is of a dietary aide in nursing home where there is an Alzheimer patient whom she has to take care of regularly. There she befriends Marge and Holly, who are fellow housekeepers. Compared to previous one, she is proud of her job. As Ted, the manager of the housekeeping company is strict with women’s schedule; her routine becomes tight and physically and mentally demanding. She and other housekeepers often are deprived of lunch either of their schedule or because of their low wages. In the due course, Holly becomes pregnant and she needs holidays, which Ted refuses to give. However, the author is successful in winning her holidays from Ted revealing her real job. After her stint at Portland, she proceeds to her final destination- Minneapolis, Minnesota. There she manages to find a runaway motel with loose bolts and doors, after a long hunt for accommodation in a city where vacancy rate is only 1%. She is unsafe of her belongings at her stay. After a long search, she manages to get her job in Wal-Mart in ladies clothing. Her job is pick up dropped clothing and taking cloths from dressing rooms and put them back on the racks. There she befriends Melissa and meets union as she feels that workers are working too hard for their wage. Though she finds a better place to live, she eventually leaves her job after a month, as the wage is too low to afford a single day meal. After her experiments she finally analyses how she performed at each job. She rates herself as average and one of the problems she faced is low level of encouragement from her co-workers. Also she concludes that the unskilled jobs are physically and mentally challenging and the state is even worsened due to employee politics. Level of competition in the markets is very high as there is rise of rent, especially for hourly workers. Employers used many tricks in order to keep wages low so that employees keep coming back to their jobs. These all with the politics resulted in low pay and low standard of living. These workers will even face a problem in knowing the better pay jobs as they have little education and cannot afford increasing transportation cost. The main reason for these shortcomings in these jobs was low self esteem. People who work these menial jobs are not given respect and often games are played at them to reduce their pay. The author finally concludes the book as the welfare reform has not yet reached the people in the way the government had planned and calls for better prospects for these people and increases their standard of living. In response to Nickel and Dimed, Adam Shepard conducted an experiment. Sheperd began his experiment with $25 in his pocket. Without mentioning his degrees, he managed to get a job and fulfilled his objective of buying a home, a car and more than $5000 as his savings in ten months. This experiment refuted to the premise around which Nickel and Dimed was constructed. The author finally concludes by portraying the mindset of low-paid workers-â€Å"When someone works for less pay than she can live on †¦ she has made a great sacrifice for you †¦ The â€Å"working poor† †¦ are in fact the major philanthropists of our society. They neglect their own children so that the children of others will be cared for; they live in substandard housing so that other homes will be shiny and perfect; they endure privation so that inflation will be low and stock prices high. To be a member of the working poor is to be an anonymous donor, a nameless benefactor, to everyone. † References Ehrenreich, Barbara. 2001. Metropolitan Books. Nickel and Dimed. Platt, Charles. â€Å"Life at Wal-Mart. â€Å"

Friday, January 3, 2020

Postwar writings Free Essay Example, 1000 words

The metaphorical meaning of the title of the book represented the situation of his mind. At one point, Cumming said the following as he described his position of the brain, â€Å"I am too tired to think I merely felt the town as a unique unreality. What was it? I knew- the moons picture of a tower†¦ if I blew hard, the whole shy mechanism would collapse gently with a neat soundless crash. I must not or lose all. † In this quote taken from his work, Cumming describes his mental perception of things during the imprisonment. Moreover, he offers some of the conditions that defined the room where he spend his sentence period (Baym et al, 2007). 4. Where are the â€Å"Desert Places? † In his poem titled Desert Places, Robert Frost makes use of symbolism in the title. He seeks to represent the state of loneliness and isolation that he felt. This is the reason why he uses the term desert to indicate to the reader the level of loneliness that he experienced. According to him, situations were only getting worse. We will write a custom essay sample on Postwar writings or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now This is evident when he says, â€Å"And lonely it is that loneliness will be more lonely ere it will be less. † In this quote from his poem, Frost makes the reader connect with the true feeling he experienced in the place that he defined as a desert. Despite being a desert, Frost indicated that he had the willingness to survive the conditions in the desert place. However, he initially admitted that the desert placed scared him because of the loneliness and the isolation that surrounded them (Baym et al, 2007). This is the case when he says, â€Å"To scare myself with my own desert places. † 5. What is the significance of Honoria’s name? What is the significance of the name of the bar Charlie frequents? In the book ‘Babylon Revisited’, a man named Charlie faces immense distress in his effort to regain his daughter who was living with her aunt. The situations leading to this were that his wife had died and her wicked sister had taken custody of their daughter. On the other hand, Charlie spent several years in Paris before he planned to return to look for his daughter. The name Honoria given to his daughter is very significant in the story. It is from this name that Charlie begins to experience positive feelings within his heart. He is proud of her and she is the symbol of character and his honour. As the name suggests, it has been constructed from the term honour and its use in the story is both its literal and figurative sense (Baym et al, 2007). The girl bearing the name exhibited a measure of self-pride and fitted the description of honourable.